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Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2015 Jun;229(6):429-38. doi: 10.1177/0954411915585598.

Microstructural characterization and hardness properties of electric resistance welding titanium joints for dental applications.

Author information

Department of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (DIBINEM), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Private Practice, Bologna, Italy.


The electric resistance welding procedure is used to join a titanium bar with specific implant abutments in order to produce a framework directly in the oral cavity of the patient. This investigation studied the effects of the welding process on microstructure and hardness properties of commercially pure (CP2 and CP4) Ti components. Different welding powers and cooling procedures were applied to bars and abutments, normally used to produce the framework, in order to simulate the clinical intraoral welding procedure. The analyses highlighted that the joining process did not induce appreciable changes in the geometry of the abutments. However, because of unavoidable microstructural modifications in the welded zones, the hardness decreased to values lower than those of the unwelded CP2 and CP4 Ti grades, irrespective of the welding environments and parameters.


Titanium; electric resistance welding; hardness; scanning electron microscope

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