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Environ Pollut. 2016 Dec;219:967-975. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.09.081. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

Phosphorus leakage from fisheries sector - A case study in Thailand.

Author information

1
Department of Sanitary Engineering, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand; Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, Rajvithi Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. Electronic address: nuchnapa.n23@gmail.com.
2
Department of Sanitary Engineering, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand; Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, Rajvithi Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. Electronic address: chongchin.pol@mahidol.ac.th.
3
Department of Global Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA. Electronic address: ajenglande@gmail.com.

Abstract

Although phosphorus (P) is an essential element needed for all lives, excess P can be harmful to the environment. The objective of this study aims to determine P flows in the fisheries sector of Thailand consisting of both sea and freshwater activities of captures and cultures. Currently, the annual fisheries catch averages 3.44 ± 0.50 Mt. Most comes from marine capture 1.95 ± 0.46 Mt, followed by coastal aquaculture 0.78 ± 0.09 Mt, freshwater aquaculture 0.49 ± 0.05 Mt, and inland capture 0.22 ± 0.01 Mt. Of this total, about 11% is contained in fresh products directly sold in local markets for consumption, while 89% is sent to processing factories prior to being sold in local markets and exported. The quantities of P entering the fisheries sector come from captures, import of fisheries products and feed produced from agriculture. This P input to the fisheries sector is found to average 28,506 t P.y-1 based on the past ten-year records. Of this total, P input from captures accounts for 76%; while, 11% represents aquatic feeds from agriculture and animal manures. About 13% is obtained from the imports of fishery products. Coastal and freshwater aquacultures are found to be P consumers because their feeds are almost all produced from agricultural crops grown inland. Moreover, these activities cause most of P losses, approximately 10,188 t P·y-1, which account for 89% of the total P loss from the fisheries sector. Overall, P in the fisheries sector is found to mobilize through three channels: (a) 44% is consumed within the country; (b) about 16% is exported; and, (c) 40% is lost from the ecosystem. Based on the results of this work it is recommended that future research be directed on ways to minimize P loss and maximize P recycle in Thailand's fisheries sector as to enhance its food security and curtail water pollution.

KEYWORDS:

Aquaculture; Aquatic feeds; Fisheries sector; Marine capture; Phosphorus flow; Thailand

PMID:
27720544
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2016.09.081
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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