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Nutrients. 2017 Dec 19;9(12). pii: E1375. doi: 10.3390/nu9121375.

Quantity and Quality of Carbohydrate Intake during Pregnancy, Newborn Body Fatness and Cardiac Autonomic Control: Conferred Cardiovascular Risk?

Author information

1
Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. kirstymacknz@gmail.com.
2
Sydney Medical School, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. kirstymacknz@gmail.com.
3
Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. hdis1775@uni.sydney.edu.au.
4
Sydney Medical School, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. hdis1775@uni.sydney.edu.au.
5
Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. rowenamcm@gmail.com.
6
Sydney Medical School, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. rowenamcm@gmail.com.
7
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia. rowenamcm@gmail.com.
8
Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. ian.caterson@sydney.edu.au.
9
Sydney Medical School, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. David.Celermajer@health.nsw.gov.au.
10
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia. David.Celermajer@health.nsw.gov.au.
11
Sydney Medical School, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. adrienne.gordon@sydney.edu.au.
12
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia. adrienne.gordon@sydney.edu.au.
13
Sydney Medical School, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. Jon.Hyett@sswahs.nsw.gov.au.
14
Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. alice.meroni@sydney.edu.au.
15
Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. melinda.phang@sydney.edu.au.
16
Sydney School of Public Health, Edward Ford Building, Fisher Road, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. camille.raynes-greenow@sydney.edu.au.
17
Sydney Medical School, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. jaimie.polson@sydney.edu.au.
18
School of Medical Science & Bosch Institute, Anderson Stuart Building (F13), University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. jaimie.polson@sydney.edu.au.
19
Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. michael.skilton@sydney.edu.au.
20
Sydney Medical School, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia. michael.skilton@sydney.edu.au.

Abstract

The fetal environment has an important influence on health and disease over the life course. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is potentially a powerful contributor to the intrauterine environment, and may alter offspring physiology and later life cardio-metabolic risk. Putative early life markers of cardio-metabolic risk include newborn body fatness and cardiac autonomic control. We sought to determine whether maternal dietary carbohydrate quantity and/or quality during pregnancy are associated with newborn body composition and cardiac autonomic function. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed in 142 mother-infant pairs using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Infant adiposity and body composition were assessed at birth using air-displacement plethysmography. Cardiac autonomic function was assessed as heart rate variability. The quantity of carbohydrates consumed during pregnancy, as a percentage of total energy intake, was not associated with meaningful differences in offspring birth weight, adiposity or heart rate variability (p > 0.05). There was some evidence that maternal carbohydrate quality, specifically higher fibre and lower glycemic index, is associated with higher heart rate variability in the newborn offspring (p = 0.06). This suggests that poor maternal carbohydrate quality may be an important population-level inter-generational risk factor for later cardiac and hemodynamic risk of their offspring.

KEYWORDS:

adiposity; autonomic function; body composition; carbohydrate; fibre; glycaemic index; glycaemic load; heart rate variability; infant; maternal diet

PMID:
29257088
PMCID:
PMC5748825
DOI:
10.3390/nu9121375
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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