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Science. 2018 Jul 13;361(6398). pii: eaat1378. doi: 10.1126/science.aat1378. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Multimessenger observations of a flaring blazar coincident with high-energy neutrino IceCube-170922A.

Collaborators (985)

Aartsen M, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M, Ahrens M, Al Samarai I, Altmann D, Andeen K, Anderson T, Ansseau I, Anton G, Argüelles C, Auffenberg J, Axani S, Bagherpour H, Bai X, Barron J, Barwick S, Baum V, Bay R, Beatty J, Becker KH, Tjus J, BenZvi S, Berley D, Bernardini E, Besson D, Binder G, Bindig D, Blaufuss E, Blot S, Bohm C, Boerner M, Bos F, Boeser S, Botner O, Bourbeau E, Bourbeau J, Bradascio F, Braun J, Brenzke M, Bretz HP, Bron S, Brostean-Kaiser J, Burgman A, Busse R, Carver T, Cheng E, Chirkin D, Christov A, Clark K, Classen L, Coenders S, Collin G, Conrad J, Coppin P, Correa P, Cowen D, Cross R, Dave P, Day M, de Andre JPAM, De Clercq C, Delaunay J, Dembinski H, DeRidder S, Desiati P, de Vries K, DeWasseige G, DeWith M, DeYoung T, Díaz-Vélez JC, Di Lorenzo V, Dujmovic H, Dumm J, Dunkman M, Dvorak E, Eberhardt B, Ehrhardt T, Eichmann B, Eller P, Evenson P, Fahey S, Fazely A, Felde J, Filimonov K, Finley C, Flis S, Franckowiak A, Friedman E, Fritz A, Gaisser T, Gallagher J, Gerhardt L, Ghorbani K, Glauch T, Gluesenkamp T, Goldschmidt A, Gonzalez J, Grant D, Griffith Z, Haack C, Hallgren A, Halzen F, Hanson K, Hebecker D, Heereman D, Helbing K, Hellauer R, Hickford S, Hignight J, Hill G, Hoffman K, Hoffmann R, Hoinka T, Hokanson-Fasig B, Hoshina K, Huang F, Huber M, Hultqvist K, Huennefeld M, Hussain R, In S, Iovine N, Ishihara A, Jacobi E, Japaridze G, Jeong M, Jero K, Jones B, Kalaczynski P, Kang W, Kappes A, Kappesser D, Karg T, Karle A, Katz U, Kauer M, Keivani A, Kelley J, Kheirandish A, Kim J, Kim M, Kintscher T, Kiryluk J, Kittler T, Klein S, Koirala R, Kolanoski H, Koepke L, Kopper C, Kopper S, Koschinsky JP, Koskinen J, Kowalski M, Krings K, Kroll M, Krueckl G, Kunwar S, Kurahashi Neilson N, Kuwabara T, Kyriacou A, Labare M, Lanfranchi J, Larson M, Lauber F, Leonard K, Lesiak-Bzdak M, Leuermann M, Liu Q, Lozano Mariscal CJ, Lu L, Luenemann J, Luszczak W, Madsen J, Maggi G, Mahn K, Mancina S, Maruyama R, Mase K, Maunu R, Meagher K, Medici M, Meier M, Menne T, Merino G, Meures T, Miarecki S, Micallef J, Momente G, Montaruli T, Moore R, Morse R, Moulai M, Nahnhauer R, Nakarmi P, Naumann U, Neer G, Niederhausen H, Nowicki S, Nygren D, Pollmann A, Olivas A, Murchadha AÓ, O'Sullivan E, Palczewski T, Pandya H, Pankova D, Peiffer P, Pepper J, de Los Heros C, Pieloth D, Pinat E, Plum M, Price B, Przybylski G, Raab C, Raedel L, Rameez M, Rauch L, Rawlins K, Rea IC, Reimann R, Relethford B, Relich M, Resconi E, Rhode W, Richman M, Robertson S, Rongen M, Rott C, Ruhe T, Ryckbosch D, Rysewyk D, Safa I, Saelzer T, Sanchez S, Sandrock A, Sandroos J, Santander M, Sarkar S, Sarkar S, Satalecka K, Schlunder P, Schmidt T, Schneider A, Schoenen S, Schoneberg S, Schumacher L, Sclanfani S, Seckel D, Seunarine S, Soedingrekso J, Soldin D, Song M, Spiczak G, Spiering C, Stachurska J, Stamatikos M, Stanev T, Stasik A, Stein R, Stettner J, Steuer A, Stezelberger T, Stokstad R, Stoessl A, Strotjohann NL, Stuttard T, Sullivan G, Sutherland M, Taboada I, Tatar J, Tenholt F, Ter-Antonyan S, Terliuk A, Tilav S, Toale P, Tobin M, Toennis C, Toscano S, Tosi D, Tselengidou M, Tung C, Turcati A, Turley C, Ty B, Unger L, Usner M, Van Driessche W, Van Eijk D, van Eijndhoven N, Vandenbroucke J, Vanheule S, van Santen J, Vogel E, Vraeghe M, Walck C, Wallace A, Wallraff M, Wandler F, Wandkowsky N, Waza A, Weaver C, Weiss M, Wendt C, Werthebach J, Westerhoff S, Whelan B, Whitehorn N, Wiebe K, Wiebusch C, Wille L, Williams D, Wills L, Wolf M, Wood J, Wood T, Woschnagg K, Xu D, Xu X, Xu Y, Yanez JP, Yodh G, Yoshida S, Yuan T, Abdollahi S, Ajello M, Angioni R, Baldini L, Ballet J, Barbiellini G, Bastieri D, Bechtol K, Bellazzini R, Berenji B, Bissaldi E, Blandford R, Bonino R, Bottacini E, Bregeon J, Bruel P, Büehler R, Burnett T, Burns E, Buson S, Cameron R, Caputo R, Caraveo PA, Cavazzuti E, Charles E, Chen S, Cheung T, Chiang J, Chiaro G, Ciprini S, Cohen-Tanugi J, Conrad J, Costantin D, Cutini S, D'Ammando F, de Palma F, Digel S, Di Lalla N, Di Mauro M, Di Venere L, Domínguez A, Favuzzi C, Franckowiak A, Fukazawa Y, Funk S, Fusco P, Gargano F, Gasparrini D, Giglietto N, Giomi M, Giommi P, Giordano F, Giroletti M, Glanzman T, Green D, Grenier I, Grondin MH, Guiriec S, Harding A, Hayashida M, Hays L, Hewitt J, Horan D, Jóhannesson G, Kadler M, Kensei S, Kocevski D, Krauss F, Kreter M, Kuss M, La Mura G, Larsson S, Latronico L, Lemoine-Goumard M, Li J, Longo F, Loparco F, Lovellette M, Lubrano P, Magill J, Maldera S, Malyshev D, Manfreda A, Mazziotta MN, McEnery J, Meyer M, Michelson P, Mizuno T, Monzani ME, Morselli A, Moskalenko I, Negro M, Nuss E, Ojha R, Omodei N, Orienti M, Orlando E, Palatiello M, Paliya V, Perkins J, Persic M, Pesce-Rollins M, Piron F, Porter T, Principe G, Rainò S, Rando R, Rani B, Razzano M, Razzaque S, Reimer A, Reimer O, Renault-Tinacci N, Ritz S, Rochester L, Parkinson PS, Sgrò C, Siskind EJ, Spandre G, Spinelli P, Suson D, Tajima H, Takahashi M, Tanaka Y, Thayer J, Thompson DJ, Tibaldo L, Torres DF, Torresi E, Tosti G, Troja E, Valverde JV, Vianello G, Vogel M, Wood K, Wood M, Zaharijas G, Ahnen ML, Ansoldi S, Antonelli LA, Arcaro C, Baack D, Babić A, Banerjee B, Bangale P, Barres de Almeida U, Barrio JA, González JB, Bednarek W, Bernardini E, Berti A, Bhattacharyya W, Biland A, Blanch O, Bonnoli G, Carosi R, Carosi A, Ceribella G, Chatterjee A, Colak SM, Colin P, Colombo E, Contreras JL, Cortina J, Covino S, Cumani P, Da Vela P, Dazzi F, De Angelis A, De Lotto B, Delfino M, Delgado J, Di Pierro F, Domínguez A, Dominis Prester D, Dorner D, Doro M, Einecke S, Elsaesser D, Fallah Ramazani V, Fernández-Barral A, Fidalgo D, Foffano L, Pfrang K, Fonseca MV, Font L, Fruck C, Galindo D, Gallozzi S, García López RJ, Garczarczyk M, Gaug M, Giammaria P, Godinović N, Gora D, Guberman D, Hadasch D, Hahn A, Hassan T, Hayashida M, Herrera J, Hose J, Hrupec D, Inoue S, Ishio K, Konno Y, Kubo H, Kushida J, Lelas D, Lindfors E, Lombardi S, Longo F, López M, Maggio C, Majumdar P, Makariev M, Maneva G, Manganaro M, Mannheim K, Maraschi L, Mariotti M, Martínez M, Masuda S, Mazin D, Minev M, Miranda JM, Mirzoyan R, Moralejo A, Moreno V, Moretti E, Nagayoshi T, Neustroev V, Niedzwiecki A, Nievas Rosillo M, Nigro C, Nilsson K, Ninci D, Nishijima K, Noda K, Nogués L, Paiano S, Palacio J, Paneque D, Paoletti R, Paredes JM, Pedaletti G, Peresano M, Persic M, Prada Moroni PG, Prandini E, Puljak I, Rodriguez J, Reichardt I, Rhode W, Ribó M, Rico J, Righi C, Rugliancich A, Saito T, Satalecka K, Schweizer T, Sitarek J, Šnidarić I, Sobczynska D, Stamerra A, Strzys M, Surić T, Takahashi M, Tavecchio F, Temnikov P, Terzić T, Teshima M, Torres-Albà N, Treves A, Tsujimoto S, Vanzo G, Vazquez Acosta M, Vovk I, Ward JE, Will M, Zarić D, Franceschini A, Lucarelli F, Tavani M, Piano G, Donnarumma I, Pittori C, Verrecchia F, Barbiellini G, Bulgarelli A, Caraveo P, Cattaneo PW, Colafrancesco S, Costa E, Di Cocco G, Ferrari A, Gianotti F, Giuliani A, Lipari P, Mereghetti S, Morselli A, Pacciani L, Paoletti F, Parmiggiani N, Pellizzoni A, Picozza P, Pilia M, Rappoldi A, Trois A, Vercellone S, Vittorini V, Albert A, Alfaro R, Álvarez C, Arceo R, Arteaga Velázquez JC, Avila Rojas DO, Ayala Solares HA, Becerril AD, Belmont-Moreno E, Bernal A, Caballero Mora KS, Capistrán Rojas T, Carramiñana A, Casanova S, Castillo Maldonado MA, Cotti U, Cotzomi J, Coutiño de León S, De León Acuña CL, De la Fuente E, Hernandez RD, Dichiara S, Dingus B, DuVernois M, Díaz Velez JC, Ellsworth R, Engel K, Fiorino DW, Fleischhack H, Fraija NI, García González JA, Garfias F, González MM, Muñoz AG, Goodman JA, Hampel-Arias Z, Harding JP, Cadena SH, Hona B, Hueyotl-Zahuantitla F, Hui M, Hüntemeyer P, Iriarte A, Jardin-Blicq A, Joshi V, Kaufmann S, Kunde GJ, Lara A, Lauer R, Lee W, Lennarz D, Vargas HL, Linnemann J, Longinotti AL, Luis-Raya G, Luna-García R, Malone K, Marinelli SS, Martinez O, Martinez Castellanos I, Martínez Huerta H, Martínez Castro J, Matthews J, Miranda-Romagnoli P, Moreno Barbosa E, Mostafa M, Nayerhoda A, Nellen L, Newbold M, Nisa MU, Noriega-Papaqui R, Pelayo R, Pretz J, Pérez Pérez EG, Ren Z, Rho CD, Rivière C, González DR, Rosenberg M, Ruiz-Velasco E, Ruiz-Velasco E, Greus FS, Sandoval A, Schneider M, Schoorlemmer H, Sinnis G, Smith AJ, Springer W, Surajbali P, Tibolla O, Tollefson K, Torres I, Villaseñor L, Weisgarber T, Werner F, Yapici T, Yodh G, Zepeda A, Zhou H, Álvarez Romero JD, Abdalla H, Angüner EO, Armand C, Backes M, Becherini Y, Berge D, Böttcher M, Boisson C, Bolmont J, Bonnefoy S, Bordas P, Brun F, Büchele M, Bulik T, Caroff S, Carosi A, Casanova S, Cerruti M, Chakraborty N, Chandra S, Chen A, Colafrancesco S, Davids ID, Deil C, Devin J, Djannati-Ataï A, Egberts K, Emery G, Eschbach S, Fiasson A, Fontaine G, Funk S, Füßling M, Gallant YA, Gaté F, Giavitto G, Glawion D, Glicenstein JF, Gottschall D, Grondin MH, Haupt M, Henri G, Hinton JA, Hoischen C, Holch TL, Huber D, Jamrozy M, Jankowsky D, Jankowsky F, Jouvin L, Jung-Richardt I, Kerszberg D, Khélifi B, King J, Klepser S, Kluźniak W, Komin N, Kraus M, Lefaucheur J, Lemière A, Lemoine-Goumard M, Lenain JP, Leser E, Lohse T, López-Coto R, Lorentz M, Lypova I, Marandon V, Martí-Devesa GG, Maurin G, Mitchell AMW, Moderski R, Mohamed M, Mohrmann L, Moulin E, Murach T, de Naurois M, Niederwanger F, Niemiec J, Oakes L, O'Brien P, Ohm S, Ostrowski M, Oya I, Panter M, Parsons RD, Perennes C, Piel Q, Pita S, Poireau V, Noel AP, Prokoph H, Pühlhofer G, Quirrenbach A, Raab S, Rauth R, Renaud M, Rieger F, Rinchiuso L, Romoli C, Rowell G, Rudak B, Sanchez DA, Sasaki M, Schlickeiser R, Schüssler F, Schulz A, Schwanke U, Seglar-Arroyo M, Shafi N, Simoni R, Sol H, Stegmann C, Steppa C, Tavernier T, Taylor AM, Tiziani D, Trichard C, Tsirou M, van Eldik C, van Rensburg C, van Soelen B, Veh J, Vincent P, Voisin F, Wagner SJ, Wagner RM, Wierzcholska A, Zanin R, Zdziarski AA, Zech A, Ziegler A, Zorn J, Zywucka N, Savchenko V, Ferrigno C, Bazzano A, Diehl R, Kuulkers E, Laurent P, Mereghetti S, Natalucci L, Panessa F, Rodi J, Ubertini P, Morokuma T, Ohta K, Tanaka YT, Mori H, Yamanaka M, Kawabata KS, Utsumi Y, Nakaoka T, Kawabata M, Nagashima H, Yoshida M, Matsuoka Y, Itoh R, Keel W, Copperwheat C, Steele I, Cenko SB, Evans P, Fox D, Kennea J, Marshall F, Osborne J, Tohuvavohu A, Turley C, Cowen D, DeLaunay J, Keivani A, Santander M, Abeysekara A, Archer A, Benbow W, Bird R, Brill A, Brose R, Buchovecky M, Buckley J, Bugaev V, Christiansen J, Connolly M, Cui W, Daniel M, Errando M, Falcone A, Feng Q, Finley J, Fortson L, Furniss A, Gueta O, Hütten M, Hervet O, Hughes G, Humensky T, Johnson C, Kaaret P, Kar P, Kelley-Hoskins N, Kertzman M, Kieda D, Krause M, Krennrich F, Kumar S, Lang M, Lin T, Maier G, McArthur S, Moriarty P, Mukherjee R, Nieto D, O'Brien S, Ong R, Otte A, Park N, Petrashyk A, Pohl M, Popkow A, Pueschel E, Quinn J, Ragan K, Reynolds P, Richards G, Roache E, Rulten C, Sadeh I, Santander M, Scott S, Sembroski G, Shahinyan K, Sushch I, Trépanier S, Tyler J, Vassiliev V, Wakely S, Weinstein A, Wells R, Wilcox P, Wilhelm A, Williams D, Zitzer B, Tetarenko A, Kimball A, Miller-Jones J, Sivakoff G.

Abstract

Previous detections of individual astrophysical sources of neutrinos are limited to the Sun and the supernova 1987A, whereas the origins of the diffuse flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos remain unidentified. On 22 September 2017, we detected a high-energy neutrino, IceCube-170922A, with an energy of ~290 tera-electron volts. Its arrival direction was consistent with the location of a known γ-ray blazar, TXS 0506+056, observed to be in a flaring state. An extensive multiwavelength campaign followed, ranging from radio frequencies to γ-rays. These observations characterize the variability and energetics of the blazar and include the detection of TXS 0506+056 in very-high-energy γ-rays. This observation of a neutrino in spatial coincidence with a γ-ray-emitting blazar during an active phase suggests that blazars may be a source of high-energy neutrinos.

PMID:
30002226
DOI:
10.1126/science.aat1378

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