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Materials (Basel). 2019 May 15;12(10). pii: E1582. doi: 10.3390/ma12101582.

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Behavior of Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam Fabricated by the Gas Blowing Method under Compressive Loading.

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Faculty of Engineering, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac 34000, Serbia.
Faculty of Engineering, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac 34000, Serbia.
Faculty of Engineering, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac 34000, Serbia.
ALUINVENT, Felsőzsolcai Industrial Park, Miskolc H-3561, Hungary.
University of Miskolc, Miskolc H-3561, Hungary.
Innobay Hungary Ltd., Miskolc 3519, Hungary.
Innobay Hungary Ltd., Miskolc 3519, Hungary.


This paper deals with the experimental and numerical study of closed-cell aluminum-based foam under compressive loading. Experimental samples were produced by the gas blowing method. Foam samples had an average cell size of around 1 mm, with sizes in the range 0.5-5 mm, and foam density of 0.6 g/cm3. Foam samples were subjected to a uniaxial compression test, at a displacement rate of 0.001 mm/s. Load and stress were monitored as the functions of extension and strain, respectively. For numerical modeling, CT scan images of experimental samples were used to create a volume model. Solid 3D quadratic tetrahedron mesh with TETRA 10-node elements was applied, with isotropic material behavior. A nonlinear static test with an elasto-plastic model was used in the numerical simulation, with von Mises criteria, and strain was kept below 10% by the software. Uniform compressive loading was set up over the top sample surface, in the y-axis direction only. Experimental tests showed that a 90 kN load produced complete failure of the sample, and three zones were exhibited: an elastic region, a rather uniform plateau region (around 23 MPa) and a densification region that started around 35 MPa. Yielding, or collapse stress, was achieved around 20 MPa. The densification region and a rapid rise in stress began at around 52% of sample deformation. The numerical model showed both compressive and tensile stresses within the complex stress field, indicating that shear also had a prominent role. Mainly compressive stresses were exhibited in the zones of the larger cells, whereas tensile stresses occurred in zones with an increased number of small cells and thin cell walls.


aluminum foam; closed-cell foam; mechanical properties; micro-CT; modeling; tomography

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