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Materials (Basel). 2018 Feb 25;11(3). pii: E333. doi: 10.3390/ma11030333.

Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Study of Synthetic and Bovine-Derived Hydroxyapatite Ceramics: A Comparison.

Author information

1
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente #2000, Fraccionamiento Real de Juriquilla, Santiago de Querétaro 76230, Mexico. jrincon@cinvestav.mx.
2
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente #2000, Fraccionamiento Real de Juriquilla, Santiago de Querétaro 76230, Mexico. jhermann@cinvestav.mx.
3
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente #2000, Fraccionamiento Real de Juriquilla, Santiago de Querétaro 76230, Mexico. agiraldo@cinvestav.mx.
4
Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Zacatenco, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, Ciudad de Mexico 07360, Mexico. avizcaya@cinvestav.mx.
5
Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial, Av. Playa Pie de la Cuesta No. 702, Desarrollo San Pablo, Santiago de Querétaro 76125, Mexico. juan.alvarado@cidesi.edu.mx.
6
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente #2000, Fraccionamiento Real de Juriquilla, Santiago de Querétaro 76230, Mexico. jmunoz@cinvestav.mx.

Abstract

The physicochemical properties and biological behavior of sintered-bovine-derived hydroxyapatite (BHAp) are here reported and compared to commercial synthetic-HAp (CHAp). Dense ceramics were sintered for 2 h and 4 h at 1200 °C to investigate their microstructure-structure-in-vitro behavior relationship for both HAp ceramics. Densification was directly proportional to sintering time, showing a grain coarsening behavior with a greater effect on BHAp. Lattice parameters, crystallite size, cell volume and Ca/P ratio were determined by Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns using GSAS®. Ionic substitutions (Na⁺, Mg2+, CO₃2-) related to BHAp structure were associated with their position changes in the vibrational modes and correlated with the structural parameters obtained from the XRD analysis. Variations in the structural parameters and surface morphology were also evaluated after different soaking periods in simulated body fluid, which is associated with the formation of bone-like apatite layer and thus bioactivity. Mitochondrial activity (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays showed that the material released by the ceramics does not induce toxicity after exposure in human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) cells. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were found between the HAp obtained from different sources. These results show that BHAp can be used with no restrictions for the same biomedical applications as CHAp.

KEYWORDS:

Bioceramics; biocompatibility; bovine-derived hydroxyapatite; sintering

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