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NeuroRehabilitation. 2015;37(4):563-90. doi: 10.3233/NRE-151280.

Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST): Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

Author information

1
IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain.
2
Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Deusto, Bilbao, Spain.
3
Clínica de rehabilitación Las Araucarias, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
4
CETYS University, Mexicali, Mexico.
5
Facultad de Psicología Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Mexico.
6
Servicio Médico Legal, Ministerio de Justicia, Santiago, Chile.
7
Ponce Health Sciences University, Ponce, Puerto Rico.
8
Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía MVS, Mexico City, Mexico.
9
Instituto Vocacional Enrique Díaz de León, Guadalajara, Mexico.
10
Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
11
Instituto de Prevención Social, Asuncion, Paraguay.
12
Universidad Dr. José Matías Delgado, San Salvador, El Salvador.
13
Fundación Horizontes, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.
14
Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali, Mexico.
15
International center for neurological Restoration CIREN, Havana, Cuba.
16
Instituto de Neuropsicología y Demencias, Lima, Peru.
17
Departamento de Medicina de Rehabilitación, Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
18
Departamento de Psicología, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To generate normative data on the Modified Card Sorting Test (M-WCST) across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate.

METHOD:

The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the M-WCST as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms.

RESULTS:

The final multiple linear regression models explained between 2-33% of the variance in M-WCST scores. Although t-tests showed significant differences between men and women from seven different countries on the M-WCST, the effect sizes were small. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in in Latin America aiming to create norms for the M-WCST; this study will have important implications for the future of neuropsychology in the region.

KEYWORDS:

Latin America; Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; Normative data; executive function; reference values

PMID:
26639931
DOI:
10.3233/NRE-151280
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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