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Magn Reson Med. 2018 Oct;80(4):1452-1466. doi: 10.1002/mrm.27137. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Feasibility of high spatiotemporal resolution for an abbreviated 3D radial breast MRI protocol.

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Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.
Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.
Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.
Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.



To develop a volumetric imaging technique with 0.8-mm isotropic resolution and 10-s/volume rate to detect and analyze breast lesions in a bilateral, dynamic, contrast-enhanced MRI exam.


A local low-rank temporal reconstruction approach that also uses parallel imaging and spatial compressed sensing was designed to create rapid volumetric frame rates during a contrast-enhanced breast exam (vastly undersampled isotropic projection [VIPR] spatial compressed sensing with temporal local low-rank [STELLR]). The dynamic-enhanced data are subtracted in k-space from static mask data to increase sparsity for the local low-rank approach to maximize temporal resolution. A T1 -weighted 3D radial trajectory (VIPR iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares estimation [IDEAL]) was modified to meet the data acquisition requirements of the STELLR approach. Additionally, the unsubtracted enhanced data are reconstructed using compressed sensing and IDEAL to provide high-resolution fat/water separation. The feasibility of the approach and the dual reconstruction methodology is demonstrated using a 16-channel breast coil and a 3T MR scanner in 6 patients.


The STELLR temporal performance of subtracted data matched the expected temporal perfusion enhancement pattern in small and large vascular structures. Differential enhancement within heterogeneous lesions is demonstrated with corroboration from a basic reconstruction using a strict 10-second temporal footprint. Rapid acquisition, reliable fat suppression, and high spatiotemporal resolution are presented, despite significant data undersampling.


The STELLR reconstruction approach of 3D radial sampling with mask subtraction provides a high-performance imaging technique for characterizing enhancing structures within the breast. It is capable of maintaining temporal fidelity, while visualizing breast lesions with high detail over a large FOV to include both breasts.


bilateral breast; compressed sensing; dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI; local low-rank; parallel imaging; radial sampling


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