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Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(11):7785-805. doi: 10.3390/ijms12117785. Epub 2011 Nov 10.

Green aspects of techniques for the determination of currently used pesticides in environmental samples.

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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza Street 11/12, Gdansk 80-233, Poland; E-Mails: (M.T.); (M.B.); (J.N.).


Pesticides are among the most dangerous environmental pollutants because of their stability, mobility and long-term effects on living organisms. Their presence in the environment is a particular danger. It is therefore crucial to monitor pesticide residues using all available analytical methods. The analysis of environmental samples for the presence of pesticides is very difficult: the processes involved in sample preparation are labor-intensive and time-consuming. To date, it has been standard practice to use large quantities of organic solvents in the sample preparation process; but as these solvents are themselves hazardous, solvent-less and solvent-minimized techniques are becoming popular. The application of Green Chemistry principles to sample preparation is primarily leading to the miniaturization of procedures and the use of solvent-less techniques, and these are discussed in the paper.


environment; green analytical chemistry; pesticides; sample preparation; sustainable development

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