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Materials (Basel). 2018 May 18;11(5). pii: E840. doi: 10.3390/ma11050840.

Additive Manufacturing of Metallic and Ceramic Components by the Material Extrusion of Highly-Filled Polymers: A Review and Future Perspectives.

Author information

1
Polymer Processing, Department of Polymer Engineering and Science, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Otto Gloeckel-Strasse 2, 8700 Leoben, Austria. joamin.gonzalez-gutierrez@unileoben.ac.at.
2
Polymer Processing, Department of Polymer Engineering and Science, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Otto Gloeckel-Strasse 2, 8700 Leoben, Austria. santiago.cano-cano@unileoben.ac.at.
3
Polymer Processing, Department of Polymer Engineering and Science, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Otto Gloeckel-Strasse 2, 8700 Leoben, Austria. stephan.schuschnigg@unileoben.ac.at.
4
Industrial Liaison Department, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 27, 8700 Leoben, Austria. christian.kukla@unileoben.ac.at.
5
Polymer Processing, Department of Polymer Engineering and Science, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Otto Gloeckel-Strasse 2, 8700 Leoben, Austria. janak.sapkota@unileoben.ac.at.
6
Polymer Processing, Department of Polymer Engineering and Science, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Otto Gloeckel-Strasse 2, 8700 Leoben, Austria. clemens.holzer@unileoben.ac.at.

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) is the fabrication of real three-dimensional objects from metals, ceramics, or plastics by adding material, usually as layers. There are several variants of AM; among them material extrusion (ME) is one of the most versatile and widely used. In MEAM, molten or viscous materials are pushed through an orifice and are selectively deposited as strands to form stacked layers and subsequently a three-dimensional object. The commonly used materials for MEAM are thermoplastic polymers and particulate composites; however, recently innovative formulations of highly-filled polymers (HP) with metals or ceramics have also been made available. MEAM with HP is an indirect process, which uses sacrificial polymeric binders to shape metallic and ceramic components. After removing the binder, the powder particles are fused together in a conventional sintering step. In this review the different types of MEAM techniques and relevant industrial approaches for the fabrication of metallic and ceramic components are described. The composition of certain HP binder systems and powders are presented; the methods of compounding and filament making HP are explained; the stages of shaping, debinding, and sintering are discussed; and finally a comparison of the parts produced via MEAM-HP with those produced via other manufacturing techniques is presented.

KEYWORDS:

3D-printing; additive manufacturing; fused filament fabrication; highly-filled polymers; material extrusion; metals and ceramics

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