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Materials (Basel). 2018 Mar 7;11(3). pii: E399. doi: 10.3390/ma11030399.

Highly Sensitive and Selective Potassium Ion Detection Based on Graphene Hall Effect Biosensors.

Liu X1,2, Ye C3,4, Li X5,6, Cui N7,8, Wu T9, Du S10, Wei Q11, Fu L12, Yin J13, Lin CT14,15.

Author information

1
Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China. liuxiangqi@nimte.ac.cn.
2
Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China. liuxiangqi@nimte.ac.cn.
3
Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China. yechen@nimte.ac.cn.
4
College of Material Science and Optoelectronic Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 A Yuquan Rd., Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049, China. yechen@nimte.ac.cn.
5
Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China. lixiaoqing@nimte.ac.cn.
6
College of Material Science and Optoelectronic Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 A Yuquan Rd., Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049, China. lixiaoqing@nimte.ac.cn.
7
Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China. yuanyuanpenny@stu.xjtu.edu.cn.
8
MOE Key Laboratory for Non-Equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China. yuanyuanpenny@stu.xjtu.edu.cn.
9
Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinece Acedemy of Science, Shenzhen 518055, China. tz.wu@siat.ac.cn.
10
Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China. dushiyu@nimte.ac.cn.
11
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China. qiupwei@csu.edu.cn.
12
College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China. fuli@hdu.edu.cn.
13
Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China. yjc_2002@126.com.
14
Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China. linzhengde@nimte.ac.cn.
15
College of Material Science and Optoelectronic Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 A Yuquan Rd., Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049, China. linzhengde@nimte.ac.cn.

Abstract

Potassium (K⁺) ion is an important biological substance in the human body and plays a critical role in the maintenance of transmembrane potential and hormone secretion. Several detection techniques, including fluorescent, electrochemical, and electrical methods, have been extensively investigated to selectively recognize K⁺ ions. In this work, a highly sensitive and selective biosensor based on single-layer graphene has been developed for K⁺ ion detection under Van der Pauw measurement configuration. With pre-immobilization of guanine-rich DNA on the graphene surface, the graphene devices exhibit a very low limit of detection (≈1 nM) with a dynamic range of 1 nM-10 μM and excellent K⁺ ion specificity against other alkali cations, such as Na⁺ ions. The origin of K⁺ ion selectivity can be attributed to the fact that the formation of guanine-quadruplexes from guanine-rich DNA has a strong affinity for capturing K⁺ ions. The graphene-based biosensors with improved sensing performance for K⁺ ion recognition can be applied to health monitoring and early disease diagnosis.

KEYWORDS:

Hall effect biosensor; guanine-quadruplexes; guanine-rich DNA strand; potassium ions; single-layer graphene

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