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Nutrients. 2017 Mar 19;9(3). pii: E304. doi: 10.3390/nu9030304.

Intra Amniotic Administration of Raffinose and Stachyose Affects the Intestinal Brush Border Functionality and Alters Gut Microflora Populations.

Author information

1
Department of Animal Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. sjp233@cornell.edu.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. js2833@cornell.edu.
3
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. cz223@cornell.edu.
4
Department of Food Science and Technology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. yw696@cornell.edu.
5
USDA-ARS, Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture and Health, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. rpg3@cornell.edu.
6
USDA-ARS, Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture and Health, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. nk598@cornell.edu.
7
USDA-ARS, Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture and Health, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. et79@cornell.edu.

Abstract

This study investigates the effectiveness of two types of prebiotics-stachyose and raffinose-which are present in staple food crops that are widely consumed in regions where dietary Fe deficiency is a health concern. The hypothesis is that these prebiotics will improve Fe status, intestinal functionality, and increase health-promoting bacterial populations in vivo (Gallus gallus). By using the intra-amniotic administration procedure, prebiotic treatment solutions were injected in ovo (day 17 of embryonic incubation) with varying concentrations of a 1.0 mL pure raffinose or stachyose in 18 MΩ H₂O. Four treatment groups (50, 100 mg·mL-1 raffinose or stachyose) and two controls (18 MΩ H₂O and non-injected) were utilized. At hatch the cecum, small intestine, liver, and blood were collected for assessment of the relative abundance of the gut microflora, relative expression of Fe-related genes and brush border membrane functional genes, hepatic ferritin levels, and hemoglobin levels, respectively. The prebiotic treatments increased the relative expression of brush border membrane functionality proteins (p < 0.05), decreased the relative expression of Fe-related proteins (p < 0.05), and increased villus surface area. Raffinose and stachyose increased the relative abundance of probiotics (p < 0.05), and decreased that of pathogenic bacteria. Raffinose and stachyose beneficially affected the gut microflora, Fe bioavailability, and brush border membrane functionality. Our investigations have led to a greater understanding of these prebiotics' effects on intestinal health and mineral metabolism.

KEYWORDS:

brush border membrane; iron; prebiotics; raffinose; stachyose

PMID:
28335485
PMCID:
PMC5372967
DOI:
10.3390/nu9030304
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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