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Materials (Basel). 2016 Jul 12;9(7). pii: E565. doi: 10.3390/ma9070565.

Rapeseed and Raspberry Seed Cakes as Inexpensive Raw Materials in the Production of Activated Carbon by Physical Activation: Effect of Activation Conditions on Textural and Phenol Adsorption Characteristics.

Author information

1
Research Group of Applied and Analytical Chemistry, CMK, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, Diepenbeek 3590, Belgium. koen_smets@hotmail.be.
2
Research Group of Applied and Analytical Chemistry, CMK, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, Diepenbeek 3590, Belgium. mats.dejong@student.uhasselt.be.
3
Division of Polymer and Carbonaceous Materials, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdañska 7/9, Wroclaw 50-344, Poland. iwona.lupul@pwr.edu.pl.
4
Division of Polymer and Carbonaceous Materials, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdañska 7/9, Wroclaw 50-344, Poland. grazyna.gryglewicz@pwr.edu.pl.
5
NuTeC, CMK, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw H, Diepenbeek 3590, Belgium. sonja.schreurs@uhasselt.be.
6
Research Group of Applied and Analytical Chemistry, CMK, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, Diepenbeek 3590, Belgium. robert.carleer@uhasselt.be.
7
Research Group of Applied and Analytical Chemistry, CMK, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, Diepenbeek 3590, Belgium. jan.yperman@uhasselt.be.

Abstract

The production of activated carbons (ACs) from rapeseed cake and raspberry seed cake using slow pyrolysis followed by physical activation of the obtained solid residues is the topic of this study. The effect of activation temperature (850, 900 and 950 °C), activation time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min) and agent (steam and CO₂) on the textural characteristics of the ACs is investigated by N₂ adsorption. In general, higher activation temperatures and longer activation times increase the BET specific surface area and the porosity of the ACs, regardless of the activation agent or raw material. Steam is more reactive than CO₂ in terms of pore development, especially in the case of raspberry seed cake. The performance of the ACs in liquid adsorption is evaluated by batch phenol adsorption tests. Experimental data are best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. Based on total yield, textural characteristics and phenol adsorption, steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min and CO₂ activation at 900 °C for 120 min are found as the best activation conditions. Raspberry seed cake turns out to be a better raw material than rapeseed cake. Moreover, AC from raspberry seed cake produced by steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min performs as well as commercial AC (Norit GAC 1240) in phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetics of the selected ACs are best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model.

KEYWORDS:

activated carbon; phenol adsorption; textural characterization

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