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Viruses. 2019 Apr 24;11(4). pii: E377. doi: 10.3390/v11040377.

Determining the Replication Kinetics and Cellular Tropism of Influenza D Virus on Primary Well-Differentiated Human Airway Epithelial Cells.

Holwerda M1,2,3,4, Kelly J5,6,7, Laloli L8,9,10,11, Stürmer I12,13,14,15, Portmann J16,17,18, Stalder H19,20,21, Dijkman R22,23,24.

Author information

1
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. melle.holwerda@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
2
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland. melle.holwerda@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
3
Department of Infectious diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. melle.holwerda@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
4
Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. melle.holwerda@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
5
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. jenna.kelly@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
6
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland. jenna.kelly@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
7
Department of Infectious diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. jenna.kelly@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
8
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. laura.laloli@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
9
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland. laura.laloli@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
10
Department of Infectious diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. laura.laloli@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
11
Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. laura.laloli@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
12
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. isabel.stuermer@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
13
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland. isabel.stuermer@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
14
Department of Infectious diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. isabel.stuermer@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
15
Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. isabel.stuermer@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
16
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. jasmine.portmann@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
17
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland. jasmine.portmann@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
18
Department of Infectious diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. jasmine.portmann@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
19
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. hanspeter.stalder@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
20
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland. hanspeter.stalder@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
21
Department of Infectious diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. hanspeter.stalder@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
22
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. ronald.dijkman@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
23
Institute of Virology and Immunology, 3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland. ronald.dijkman@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
24
Department of Infectious diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. ronald.dijkman@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.

Abstract

Influenza viruses are notorious pathogens that frequently cross the species barrier with often severe consequences for both animal and human health. In 2011, a novel member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, Influenza D virus (IDV), was identified in the respiratory tract of swine. Epidemiological surveys revealed that IDV is distributed worldwide among livestock and that IDV-directed antibodies are detected in humans with occupational exposure to livestock. To identify the transmission capability of IDV to humans, we determined the viral replication kinetics and cell tropism using an in vitro respiratory epithelium model of humans. The inoculation of IDV revealed efficient replication kinetics and apical progeny virus release at different body temperatures. Intriguingly, the replication characteristics of IDV revealed higher replication kinetics compared to Influenza C virus, despite sharing the cell tropism preference for ciliated cells. Collectively, these results might indicate why IDV-directed antibodies are detected among humans with occupational exposure to livestock.

KEYWORDS:

human respiratory epithelium; influenza D virus; zoonosis

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