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Int J Womens Health. 2019 Nov 7;11:589-596. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S224159. eCollection 2019.

The Role Of Progestogens In Threatened And Idiopathic Recurrent Miscarriage.

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Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Dr. Arab Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Ibinsina Medical Private College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, The International Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Maternity Hospital - King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences - Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Maternal Fetal Medicine Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


It is well known that progesterone plays a major role in the maintenance of pregnancy, particularly during the early stages, as it is responsible for preparing the endometrium for implantation and maintenance of the gestational sac. The management of pregnant women at risk of a threatened or idiopathic recurrent miscarriage is complex and critical. Therefore, a group of obstetricians and gynecologists practicing in Saudi Arabia gathered to update the 2014 Saudi guidelines for threatened and recurrent miscarriage management. In preparation, a literature review was conducted to explore the role of oral, vaginal, and injectable progestogens: this was used as a basis to develop position statements to guide and standardize practice across Saudi Arabia.


Saudi Arabia; idiopathic recurrent miscarriage; progesterone; progestin; progestogen; threatened miscarriage

Conflict of interest statement

Hisham Arab has received speaker honoraria from Bayer, Abbott, and MSD, and advisor honoraria from Vifor and Sanofi. The authors report no other conflicts of interest in this work.

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