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Heliyon. 2019 Jun 24;5(6):e01923. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01923. eCollection 2019 Jun.

Seasonal evaluation of downscaled land surface temperature: A case study in a humid tropical city.

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Department of Applied Geology, National Institute of Technology Raipur, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India.
Department of Geography, Nazrul Balika Vidyalaya, Guma, West Bengal, India.
Chhattisgarh Council of Science and Technology, Raipur, India.


The present study evaluates the seasonal variation of estimated error in downscaled land surface temperatures (LST) over a heterogeneous urban land. Thermal sharpening (TsHARP) downscaling algorithm has been used with a separate combination of four selected remote sensing indices. This study assesses the capability of TsHARP technique over mixed land use/land covers (LULC) by analyzing the correlation between LST and remote sensing indices, namely, normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), and normalized multi-band drought index (NMDI) and by determining the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean error (ME) produced by downscaled LST. Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) and TIRS (Thermal Infrared Sensor) images have been used for pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter seasons in 2014 covering the whole Raipur City, India. The RMSE of the downscaled LST decreases from 120 to 480 m spatial resolution in all the four seasons. It is concluded that NDBI is the most effective LULC index having the least error produced in TsHARP downscaling technique, irrespective of any season. Post-monsoon season reflects the most successful result followed by monsoon season. Even in the monsoon season of high vegetation coverage, NDBI presents a lower range of downscaled error compared to NDVI. This indicates better performance of NDBI in detecting the spatial and temporal distribution of mixed urban land.


Atmospheric science; Downscaling; Environmental science; Geography; Land surface temperature (LST); Land use/land cover (LULC); Landsat; TsHARP

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