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Sensors (Basel). 2019 Jul 12;19(14). pii: E3078. doi: 10.3390/s19143078.

Advances and Opportunities in Passive Wake-Up Radios with Wireless Energy Harvesting for the Internet of Things Applications.

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College of Communication Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China.
College of Communication Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China.
Centre of Advanced Electronic & Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia.


Wake-up radio is a promising approach to mitigate the problem of idle listening, which incurs additional power consumption for the Internet of Things (IoT) wireless transmission. Radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting technique allows the wake-up radio to remain in a deep sleep and only become active after receiving an external RF signal to 'wake-up' the radio, thus eliminating necessary hardware and signal processing to perform idle listening, resulting in higher energy efficiency. This review paper focuses on cross-layer; physical and media access control (PHY and MAC) approaches on passive wake-up radio based on the previous works from the literature. First, an explanation of the circuit design and system architecture of the passive wake-up radios is presented. Afterward, the previous works on RF energy harvesting techniques and the existing passive wake-up radio hardware architectures available in the literature are surveyed and classified. An evaluation of the various MAC protocols utilized for the novel passive wake-up radio technologies is presented. Finally, the paper highlights the potential research opportunities and practical challenges related to the practical implementation of wake-up technology for future IoT applications.


Energy efficiency; Internet of Things; MAC protocols; energy harvesting; green communication; wake-up radio; wireless sensor network

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