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J Adv Res. 2014 Nov;5(6):685-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2013.11.003. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction combined with anodic stripping voltammetry for determination of lead and cadmium in water samples.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran.
2
Young Researchers Club and Elites, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

A new procedure is presented for the determination of low concentrations of lead and cadmium in water samples. Ligand assisted pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction using sol-gel sorbent reinforced with carbon nanotubes was combined with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead in tap water, and Darongar river water samples. In the present work, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) using a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) was used in order to determine the ultra trace level of lead and cadmium ions in real samples. This method is based on accumulation of lead and cadmium ions on the electrode using different ligands; Quinolin-8-ol, 5,7-diiodo quinoline-8-ol, 4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2(3H)-one and 2-{[2-(2-Hydroxy-ethylamino)-ethylamino]-methyl}-phenol as the complexing agent. The optimized conditions were obtained. The relationship between the peak current versus concentration was linear over the range of 0.05-500 ng mL(-1) for Cd (II) and Pb (II). The limits of detection for lead and cadmium were 0.015 ng mL(-1) and 0.012 ng mL(-1), respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the pre-concentration factors are 2440 and 3710 for Cd (II) and Pb (II) in 5 mL of water sample, respectively.

KEYWORDS:

Anodic stripping; Cadmium; Hollow fiber solid liquid phase microextraction; Lead; Voltammetry

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