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Materials (Basel). 2016 Dec 16;9(12). pii: E1017. doi: 10.3390/ma9121017.

Secondary Electron Emission Materials for Transmission Dynodes in Novel Photomultipliers: A Review.

Author information

1
Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB, The Netherlands. s.x.tao@tue.nl.
2
Center for Computational Energy Research, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), Eindhoven 5600 HH, The Netherlands. s.x.tao@tue.nl.
3
Department of Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2600 AA, The Netherlands. H.W.Chan@tudelft.nl.
4
National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), Science Park 105, Amsterdam 1098 XG, The Netherlands. H.W.Chan@tudelft.nl.
5
Department of Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2600 AA, The Netherlands. vdgraaf@nikhef.nl.
6
National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), Science Park 105, Amsterdam 1098 XG, The Netherlands. vdgraaf@nikhef.nl.

Abstract

Secondary electron emission materials are reviewed with the aim of providing guidelines for the future development of novel transmission dynodes. Materials with reflection secondary electron yield higher than three and transmission secondary electron yield higher than one are tabulated for easy reference. Generations of transmission dynodes are listed in the order of the invention time with a special focus on the most recent atomic-layer-deposition synthesized transmission dynodes. Based on the knowledge gained from the survey of secondary election emission materials with high secondary electron yield, an outlook of possible improvements upon the state-of-the-art transmission dynodes is provided.

KEYWORDS:

atomic layer deposition; photomultiplier; photon detector; secondary electron emission; secondary electron yield; transmission dynode

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