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Nature. 2018 Sep;561(7722):243-247. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0477-4. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

In vivo reprogramming of wound-resident cells generates skin epithelial tissue.

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The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Department of Plastic Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia (UCAM), Campus de los Jerónimos, Guadalupe, Spain.
The Razavi Newman Integrative Genomics & Bioinformatics Core, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.
King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.


Large cutaneous ulcers are, in severe cases, life threatening1,2. As the global population ages, non-healing ulcers are becoming increasingly common1,2. Treatment currently requires the transplantation of pre-existing epithelial components, such as skin grafts, or therapy using cultured cells2. Here we develop alternative supplies of epidermal coverage for the treatment of these kinds of wounds. We generated expandable epithelial tissues using in vivo reprogramming of wound-resident mesenchymal cells. Transduction of four transcription factors that specify the skin-cell lineage enabled efficient and rapid de novo epithelialization from the surface of cutaneous ulcers in mice. Our findings may provide a new therapeutic avenue for treating skin wounds and could be extended to other disease situations in which tissue homeostasis and repair are impaired.

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