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Sensors (Basel). 2017 Apr 28;17(5). pii: E984. doi: 10.3390/s17050984.

A Double Rate Localization Algorithm with One Anchor for Multi-Hop Underwater Acoustic Networks.

Gao J1,2, Shen X3,4, Zhao R5,6, Mei H7,8, Wang H9,10.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Ocean Acoustics and Sensing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Xi'an 710072, China. gaojingj126163@126.com.
2
School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China. gaojingj126163@126.com.
3
Key Laboratory of Ocean Acoustics and Sensing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Xi'an 710072, China. xhshen@nwpu.edu.cn.
4
School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China. xhshen@nwpu.edu.cn.
5
Key Laboratory of Ocean Acoustics and Sensing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Xi'an 710072, China. rqinzhao@gmail.com.
6
School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China. rqinzhao@gmail.com.
7
Key Laboratory of Ocean Acoustics and Sensing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Xi'an 710072, China. meihaodi@yeah.net.
8
School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China. meihaodi@yeah.net.
9
Key Laboratory of Ocean Acoustics and Sensing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Xi'an 710072, China. hywang@nwpu.edu.cn.
10
School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China. hywang@nwpu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Localization is a basic issue for underwater acoustic networks (UANs). Currently, most localization algorithms only perform well in one-hop networks or need more anchors which are not suitable for the underwater environment. In this paper, we proposed a double rate localization algorithm with one anchor for multi-hop underwater acoustic networks (DRL). The algorithm firstly presents a double rate scheme which separates the localization procedure into two modes to increase the ranging accuracy in multi-hop UANs while maintaining the transmission rate. Then an optimal selection scheme of reference nodes was proposed to reduce the influence of references' topology on localization performance. The proposed DRL algorithm can be used in the multi-hop UANs to increase the localization accuracy and reduce the usage of anchor nodes. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the proposed DRL algorithm has a better localization performance than the previous algorithms in many aspects such as accuracy and communication cost, and is more suitable to the underwater environment.

KEYWORDS:

double rate; localization; reference nodes; underwater acoustic networks (UANs)

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