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Genes (Basel). 2019 Aug 13;10(8). pii: E614. doi: 10.3390/genes10080614.

A Critical Review of Animal Models Used in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Pathophysiology.

Author information

1
Department of Experimental Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon.
2
Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon.
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon.
4
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon.
5
Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon. me00@aub.edu.lb.
6
Department of Experimental Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon. he21@aub.edu.lb.
7
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon. he21@aub.edu.lb.

Abstract

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most frequent, complex, and heterogeneous hematological malignancies. AML prognosis largely depends on acquired cytogenetic, epigenetic, and molecular abnormalities. Despite the improvement in understanding the biology of AML, survival rates remain quite low. Animal models offer a valuable tool to recapitulate different AML subtypes, and to assess the potential role of novel and known mutations in disease progression. This review provides a comprehensive and critical overview of select available AML animal models. These include the non-mammalian Zebrafish and Drosophila models as well as the mammalian rodent systems, comprising rats and mice. The suitability of each animal model, its contribution to the advancement of knowledge in AML pathophysiology and treatment, as well as its advantages and limitations are discussed. Despite some limitations, animal models represent a powerful approach to assess toxicity, and permit the design of new therapeutic strategies.

KEYWORDS:

Drosophila; ETO-1; FLT3 ITD; IDH1/2; NPM-1; Zebrafish; mice; rats

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