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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Dec;24(36):28102-28120. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-0285-7. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in background air around the Aegean: implications for phase partitioning and size distribution.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. athanasb@chem.auth.gr.
2
Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
3
Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany.
4
School of Science and Technology, Man-Technology-Environment Research Center (MTM), Örebro University, Orebro, Sweden.
5
Department of Chemistry, Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
6
Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Research Center, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Izmir, Turkey.
7
Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar, Izmir, Turkey.
8
Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR Demokritos Institute, Athens, Greece.
9
Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

Abstract

The occurrence and atmospheric behavior of tri- to deca-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated during a 2-week campaign concurrently conducted in July 2012 at four background sites around the Aegean Sea. The study focused on the gas/particle (G/P) partitioning at three sites (Ag. Paraskevi/central Greece/suburban, Finokalia/southern Greece/remote coastal, and Urla/Turkey/rural coastal) and on the size distribution at two sites (Neochorouda/northern Greece/rural inland and Finokalia/southern Greece/remote coastal). The lowest mean total (G + P) concentrations of ∑7PBDE (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-66, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154) and BDE-209 (0.81 and 0.95 pg m-3, respectively) were found at the remote site Finokalia. Partitioning coefficients, K P, were calculated, and their linear relationships with ambient temperature and the physicochemical properties of the analyzed PBDE congeners, i.e., the subcooled liquid pressure (P L°) and the octanol-air partition coefficient (K OA), were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption (P L°-based) and absorption (K OA-based) models, as well as a steady-state absorption model including an equilibrium and a non-equilibrium term, both being functions of log K OA, were used to predict the fraction Φ of PBDEs associated with the particle phase. The steady-state model proved to be superior to predict G/P partitioning of BDE-209. The distribution of particle-bound PBDEs across size fractions < 0.95, 0.95-1.5, 1.5-3.0, 3.0-7.2, and > 7.2 μm indicated a positive correlation between the mass median aerodynamic diameter and log P L° for the less brominated congeners, whereas a negative correlation was observed for the high brominated congeners. The potential source regions of PBDEs were acknowledged as a combination of long-range transport with short-distance sources.

KEYWORDS:

Absorption/adsorption models; Aerosol mass size distribution; Gas/particle partitioning; Long-range transport

PMID:
28993999
DOI:
10.1007/s11356-017-0285-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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