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Nutrients. 2016 May 21;8(5). pii: E315. doi: 10.3390/nu8050315.

Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

Author information

1
Nutrition and Behaviour Unit, School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK. danielle.ferriday@bristol.ac.uk.
2
Nutrition and Behaviour Unit, School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK. m_bosworth@hotmail.co.uk.
3
Behavior and Perception group, Nestlé Research Centre, Lausanne 1000, Switzerland. nicolas.godinot@alimentarium.org.
4
Behavior and Perception group, Nestlé Research Centre, Lausanne 1000, Switzerland. Nathalie.Martin@rdls.nestle.com.
5
Behavior and Perception group, Nestlé Research Centre, Lausanne 1000, Switzerland. Ciaran_Forde@sics.a-star.edu.sg.
6
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore. Ciaran_Forde@sics.a-star.edu.sg.
7
Nutrition and Behaviour Unit, School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK. emmyheuvel@gmail.com.
8
Nutrition and Behaviour Unit, School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK. sarahapple01@hotmail.com.
9
Nutrition and Behaviour Unit, School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK. F.MercerMoss@bristol.ac.uk.
10
Nutrition and Behaviour Unit, School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK. Peter.Rogers@bristol.ac.uk.
11
Nutrition and Behaviour Unit, School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK. Jeff.Brunstrom@bristol.ac.uk.

Abstract

Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the "fast" or "slow" meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

KEYWORDS:

appetite; expected satiation; liking; nudge theory; oral processing behaviours; satiation; satiety

PMID:
27213451
PMCID:
PMC4882727
DOI:
10.3390/nu8050315
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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