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Materials (Basel). 2017 Sep 12;10(9). pii: E1072. doi: 10.3390/ma10091072.

Wet-Chemical Synthesis of 3D Stacked Thin Film Metal-Oxides for All-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries.

Author information

1
Inorganic and Physical Chemistry and Imec, Division Imomec, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium. jonathan.vandenham@uhasselt.be.
2
Inorganic and Physical Chemistry and Imec, Division Imomec, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium. giulia.maino@uhasselt.be.
3
Inorganic and Physical Chemistry and Imec, Division Imomec, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium. gilles.bonneux@uhasselt.be.
4
Inorganic and Physical Chemistry and Imec, Division Imomec, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium. wouter.marchal@uhasselt.be.
5
Inorganic and Physical Chemistry and Imec, Division Imomec, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium. Ken.elen@uhasselt.be.
6
Imec vzw, Division Imomec, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium. Ken.elen@uhasselt.be.
7
Inorganic and Physical Chemistry and Imec, Division Imomec, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium. gielissven@hotmail.com.
8
Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S1, 9000 Gent, Belgium. felix.mattelaer@ugent.be.
9
Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S1, 9000 Gent, Belgium. christophe.detavernier@ugent.be.
10
Energy Materials & Devices, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. p.h.l.notten@tue.nl.
11
Forschungszentrum Jülich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 Jülich, Germany. p.h.l.notten@tue.nl.
12
Inorganic and Physical Chemistry and Imec, Division Imomec, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium. marlies.vanbael@uhasselt.be.
13
Inorganic and Physical Chemistry and Imec, Division Imomec, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium. An.hardy@uhasselt.be.

Abstract

By ultrasonic spray deposition of precursors, conformal deposition on 3D surfaces of tungsten oxide (WO₃) negative electrode and amorphous lithium lanthanum titanium oxide (LLT) solid-electrolyte has been achieved as well as an all-solid-state half-cell. Electrochemical activity was achieved of the WO₃ layers, annealed at temperatures of 500 °C. Galvanostatic measurements show a volumetric capacity (415 mAh·cm-3) of the deposited electrode material. In addition, electrochemical activity was shown for half-cells, created by coating WO₃ with LLT as the solid-state electrolyte. The electron blocking properties of the LLT solid-electrolyte was shown by ferrocene reduction. 3D depositions were done on various micro-sized Si template structures, showing fully covering coatings of both WO₃ and LLT. Finally, the thermal budget required for WO₃ layer deposition was minimized, which enabled attaining active WO₃ on 3D TiN/Si micro-cylinders. A 2.6-fold capacity increase for the 3D-structured WO₃ was shown, with the same current density per coated area.

KEYWORDS:

Li-ion batteries; conformal coating; lithium lanthanum titanium oxide; tungsten oxide; ultrasonic spray deposition

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