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Sensors (Basel). 2019 May 19;19(10). pii: E2306. doi: 10.3390/s19102306.

Super-Wide Impedance Bandwidth Planar Antenna for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Applications.

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Electronic Engineering Department, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy.
Center for Communications Technology, School of Computing & Digital Media, London Metropolitan University, Center for Communications Technology, London N7 8DB, UK.
School of Engineering & the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Rd., Edinburgh EH10 5DT, UK.
School of Engineering, University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB, UK.
Faculty of Engineering & Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford, West Yorkshire BD7 1DP, UK.
Electric and Electronic Engineering Department, Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona, Spain.
Electronic Engineering Department, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy.


A feasibility study of a novel configuration for a super-wide impedance planar antenna is presented based on a 2 × 2 microstrip patch antenna (MPA) using CST Microwave Studio. The antenna comprises a symmetrical arrangement of four-square patches that are interconnected to each other with cross-shaped high impedance microstrip lines. The antenna array is excited through a single feedline connected to one of the patches. The proposed antenna array configuration overcomes the main drawback of conventional MPA with a narrow bandwidth that is typically <5%. The antenna exhibits a super-wide frequency bandwidth from 20 GHz to 120 GHz for S11 < -15 dB, which corresponds to a fractional bandwidth of 142.85%. The antenna's performance of bandwidth, impedance match, and radiation gain were enhanced by etching slots on the patches. With the inclusion of the slot, the maximum radiation gain and efficiency of the MPA increased to 15.11 dBi and 85.79% at 80 GHz, which showed an improvement of 2.58 dBi and 12.54%, respectively. The dimension of each patch antenna was 4.3 × 5.3 mm2. The results showed that the proposed MPA is useful for various existing and emerging communication systems such as ultra-wideband (UWB) communications, RFID systems, massive multiple-output multiple-input (MIMO) for 5G, and radar systems.


array antenna; microstrip patch antenna (MPA); millimeter-wave band; multiple-output multiple-input (MIMO); radar; radio frequency identification (RFID) systems; simplified composite right/left-handed metamaterial (SCRLH MTM); slot antenna

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