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Neural Netw. 2012 Oct;34:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neunet.2012.06.003. Epub 2012 Jun 23.

On the equivalence of Hopfield networks and Boltzmann Machines.

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Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Roma, Italy.


A specific type of neural networks, the Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM), are implemented for classification and feature detection in machine learning. They are characterized by separate layers of visible and hidden units, which are able to learn efficiently a generative model of the observed data. We study a "hybrid" version of RBMs, in which hidden units are analog and visible units are binary, and we show that thermodynamics of visible units are equivalent to those of a Hopfield network, in which the N visible units are the neurons and the P hidden units are the learned patterns. We apply the method of stochastic stability to derive the thermodynamics of the model, by considering a formal extension of this technique to the case of multiple sets of stored patterns, which may act as a benchmark for the study of correlated sets. Our results imply that simulating the dynamics of a Hopfield network, requiring the update of N neurons and the storage of N(N-1)/2 synapses, can be accomplished by a hybrid Boltzmann Machine, requiring the update of N+P neurons but the storage of only NP synapses. In addition, the well known glass transition of the Hopfield network has a counterpart in the Boltzmann Machine: it corresponds to an optimum criterion for selecting the relative sizes of the hidden and visible layers, resolving the trade-off between flexibility and generality of the model. The low storage phase of the Hopfield model corresponds to few hidden units and hence a overly constrained RBM, while the spin-glass phase (too many hidden units) corresponds to unconstrained RBM prone to overfitting of the observed data.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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