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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Mar;6(3):1155-73. doi: 10.3390/ijerph6031155. Epub 2009 Mar 17.

Notes on the particulate matter standards in the European Union and the Netherlands.

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OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5030, 2600 GA Delft, the Netherlands.


The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM) in ambient air to the PM standards, the size of the particles and spatial planning. Diverging impacts of PM standards in legal regulation are discussed. The authors present a review of the development of legal PM standards in the European Union, with a specific reference to The Netherlands.


European Union; Particulate Matter; air quality; environmental policy; spatial planning, zoning

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