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Micromachines (Basel). 2016 Jan 29;7(2). pii: E22. doi: 10.3390/mi7020022.

CD-Based Microfluidics for Primary Care in Extreme Point-of-Care Settings.

Author information

1
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Meiring Naude Road, Brummeria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. ssmith@csir.co.za.
2
Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany. dario.mager@kit.edu.
3
School of Engineering and School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, 4200 Engineering Gateway, Irvine, CA 92697-3975, USA. aperebik@gmail.com.
4
School of Engineering and School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, 4200 Engineering Gateway, Irvine, CA 92697-3975, USA. eshamloo@uci.edu.
5
School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland. david.kinahan@dcu.ie.
6
School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland. rohit.mishra@dcu.ie.
7
Simulation Laboratory, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau 79085, Germany. sarai.torres@imtek.de.
8
School of Engineering and School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, 4200 Engineering Gateway, Irvine, CA 92697-3975, USA. hkido@uci.edu.
9
Foundation for Innovations in Health and JSV Innovations Private Limited, 44A S P Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700026, India. drsatadal.saha@gmail.com.
10
School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland. jens.ducree@dcu.ie.
11
School of Engineering and School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, 4200 Engineering Gateway, Irvine, CA 92697-3975, USA. mmadou@uci.edu.
12
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Meiring Naude Road, Brummeria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. kland@csir.co.za.
13
Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany. jan.korvink@kit.edu.

Abstract

We review the utility of centrifugal microfluidic technologies applied to point-of-care diagnosis in extremely under-resourced environments. The various challenges faced in these settings are showcased, using areas in India and Africa as examples. Measures for the ability of integrated devices to effectively address point-of-care challenges are highlighted, and centrifugal, often termed CD-based microfluidic technologies, technologies are presented as a promising platform to address these challenges. We describe the advantages of centrifugal liquid handling, as well as the ability of a standard CD player to perform a number of common laboratory tests, fulfilling the role of an integrated lab-on-a-CD. Innovative centrifugal approaches for point-of-care in extremely resource-poor settings are highlighted, including sensing and detection strategies, smart power sources and biomimetic inspiration for environmental control. The evolution of centrifugal microfluidics, along with examples of commercial and advanced prototype centrifugal microfluidic systems, is presented, illustrating the success of deployment at the point-of-care. A close fit of emerging centrifugal systems to address a critical panel of tests for under-resourced clinic settings, formulated by medical experts, is demonstrated. This emphasizes the potential of centrifugal microfluidic technologies to be applied effectively to extremely challenging point-of-care scenarios and in playing a role in improving primary care in resource-limited settings across the developing world.

KEYWORDS:

CD-based microfluidics; centrifugal microfluidics; extreme point-of-care; lab-on-a-disc; primary care

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