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Behav Sci (Basel). 2019 Sep 15;9(9). pii: E100. doi: 10.3390/bs9090100.

Turkish Adaptation of the Positive-Negative Relationship Quality (PN-RQ) Scale: A Reliability and Validity Study.

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Department of Psychology, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir, Turkey.
Department of Psychology, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir, Turkey.
Department of Psychology, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir, Turkey.



The present study investigates the reliability and validity of the Positive-Negative Relationship Quality (PN-RQ) scale in Turkey. This study aims to test different factorial models including orthogonal factors model, correlated factors model, one-factor model, and bifactor model.


In order to determine the validity and reliability of the scale, two studies were performed. The first was carried out with emerging adults (university students) who were in a romantic relationship (148 females, 43 males, and 2 unknown) and had the main purpose to examine the structure validity of the measurement tool in the Turkish sample with an exploratory analysis. Study 2 was performed online with 513 married adults (359 females, 149 males, and 5 unknown); confirmatory findings and criterion validity studies were added.


Exploratory factor analyses revealed that relationship quality had a two-factor structure and that there was also a negative relationship between the factors. Confirmatory factor analyses on the married sample showed that the bi-factor model provided evidence for the multidimensional nature of the scale. Both studies demonstrated high internal consistency.


There is evidence for reliability and validity in the Turkish version of the PN-RQ scale to measure both positive and negative aspects of the relationship. The PN-RQ scale will be highly functional for social and clinical psychologists who work on close relationship issues in Turkey.


bifactor; confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); positive–negative relationship quality; reliability; validity

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