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J Fungi (Basel). 2015 Jul 17;1(2):130-137. doi: 10.3390/jof1020130.

The Immunologic Response to Trichophyton Rubrum in Lower Extremity Fungal Infections.

Author information

1
Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, 148 N. 8th St., Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. tue53809@temple.edu.
2
Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, 148 N. 8th St., Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. tuf77759@temple.edu.
3
Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, 148 N. 8th St., Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. tue81439@temple.edu.
4
Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, 148 N. 8th St., Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. traceyvlahovicdpm@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Manifestations of Trichophyton rubrum infestations, such as tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis, are among the most common human skin diseases seen throughout the world. About 80% of patients presenting with acute dermatophytosis respond well to topical antifungal treatment. However, the remaining 20% of patients progress into a chronic state of dermatophytosis, which is resistant to antifungal treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to have a better understanding and appreciation for the diverse immune responses to Trichophyton as this is critical for the development of therapeutic strategies for those individuals who suffer from a chronic manifestation of Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) infection. As a result, a comprehensive literature review was conducted to review and discuss previous studies that evaluated the human body's defense to T. rubrum infections and to understand why and how these fungal infections invade the host defense system. Our research revealed that a cell-mediated immune response is critical in defending the body against T. rubrum. However, this organism has mechanisms that enable it to evade the immune system. Therefore, a more successful treatment for chronic T. rubrum infection would involve targeting the mechanisms of T. rubrum that diminish the immune response, while restoring the cell-mediated immune response.

KEYWORDS:

Trichophyton rubrum; cell-mediated immune response; dendritic cell; dermatophytosis; fungal infection; keratinocyte; macrophage; tinea pedis; toll-like receptor

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