Send to

Choose Destination
Polymers (Basel). 2019 Nov 8;11(11). pii: E1839. doi: 10.3390/polym11111839.

Viologen-Based Electrochromic Materials: From Small Molecules, Polymers and Composites to Their Applications.

Author information

Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore 117566, Singapore.
Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore 138634, Singapore.
Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore.


Organic materials have gained considerable attention for electrochromic (EC) applications owing to improved EC performance and good processability. As a class of well-recognized organic EC materials, viologens have received persistent attention due to the structural versatility and property tunability, and are major active EC components for most of the marketed EC devices. Over the past two decades, extensive efforts have been made to design and synthesize different types of viologen-based materials with enhanced EC properties. This review summarizes chemical structures, preparation and EC properties of various latest viologen-based electrochromes, including small viologen derivatives, main-chain viologen-based polymers, conjugated polymers with viologen side-chains and viologen-based organic/inorganic composites. The performance enhancement mechanisms are concisely discussed. The current marketed viologens-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) are briefly introduced and an outlook on the challenges and future exploration directions for viologen-based materials and their ECDs are also proposed.


electrochromic; electrochromic device; viologen; viologen-based polymer

Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Loading ...
Support Center