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Sci Total Environ. 2010 Mar 1;408(7):1612-20. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.11.060. Epub 2010 Jan 19.

Ozone precursors for the São Paulo Metropolitan Area.

Author information

1
Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

Ozone represents the main atmospheric pollutant in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). In this region, its concentration exceeds the national air quality standards for several days out of the year. Ozone is a secondary pollutant and is a product of VOCs, NO(x), and sunlight. Thus, it is very difficult to elaborate efficient strategies for its reduction. Computational simulations may provide an interesting alternative to evaluate the many factors that affect ozone formation. In this study, the trajectory model OZIPR was used together with the SAPRC chemical mechanism to determine the incremental reactivity scale for VOCs in the SPMA. VOC input data were obtained from two campaigns that were performed in the studied area in 2006. Values for CO, NO(x), and meteorological parameters were obtained by automatic monitors. Five base-cases were created to verify the variation in maximum ozone concentration and thus determine the ozone formation potential of each VOC. NO(x) and VOC emissions were independently and simultaneously reduced by 5, 10, 20, and 30% to verify variations in ozone formation. With the simulator output data, ozone isopleths charts were generated for the city of São Paulo. Analysis of the obtained results shows that the most frequent compounds found among the ten main ozone precursors in São Paulo, using the reactivity scales created from the five base-cases, were: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propene, isoprene, cis-2-butene, and trans-2-butene, with formaldehyde being always the main ozone precursor compound. The simulations also show that an efficient strategy to decrease ozone concentrations in the SPMA would be to reduce total VOC emissions. The same strategy is not possible for NO(x), as the reduction of these pollutants would increase ozone concentrations.

PMID:
20034654
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.11.060
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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