Send to

Choose Destination
Cells. 2019 Nov 7;8(11). pii: E1404. doi: 10.3390/cells8111404.

Trichinella spiralis Excretory-Secretory Products Stimulate Host Regulatory T Cell Differentiation through Activating Dendritic Cells.

Author information

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.
Department of Pediatrics, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


Trichinella spiralis maintains chronic infections within its host, involving a variety of immunomodulatory properties, the mechanisms of which have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we found that T. spiralis infection induced strong regulatory T cell responses through parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products, characterized by increase of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ and CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ Treg cells accompanied by high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. T. spiralis adult worm excretory-secretory products (AES) and muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (MES) were both able to activate BMDCs in vitro to facilitate their maturation and to create regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β. The T. spiralis AES- and MES-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) possessed abilities not only to present antigens to sensitized CD4+ T cell to stimulate their proliferation but also to induce naive CD4+ T cells to differentiate to Treg cells secreting IL-10 and TGF-β. The passive transfer of T. spiralis AES- and MES-pulsed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) conferred the naive mice to acquire the differentiation of Treg cells. T. spiralis AES possesses a better ability to induce Treg cells than did MES, although the latter has the ability to induce CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ Treg cells. The results obtained in this study suggested that T. spiralis ES products stimulate the differentiation of host Treg cells possibly through activating dendritic cells to create a regulatory environment that benefits the survival of the parasite in the host.


CD4+ T cell; Trichinella spiralis; dendritic cells; excretory–secretory products; regulatory T cells

Free full text

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; or in the decision to publish the results.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Loading ...
Support Center