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Microorganisms. 2019 Nov 7;7(11). pii: E536. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms7110536.

Risk Comparison of the Diarrheal and Emetic Type of Bacillus cereus in Tofu.

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Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.


We investigated the ability of biofilm formation, survival, and behavior of diarrheal and emetic Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and spores in tofu. Both diarrheal and emetic B. cereus did not proliferate at a temperature below 9 °C in tofu. However, the emetic B. cereus grew faster than diarrheal B. cereus at 11 °C and had better survival ability at low temperatures. Both diarrheal and emetic B. cereus were able to form a biofilm on stainless steel. These biofilm cells were transferred to tofu in live state. The transferred biofilm cells could not grow at a temperature below 9 °C but grew over 11 °C, like planktonic cells. B. cereus contamination in tofu at a high concentration (>6 logs CFU/g) was not entirely killed by heating at 80, 85, or 90 °C for 2 h. Spores and emetic B. cereus had higher resistance to heat than vegetative cells and diarrheal B. cereus, respectively.


Bacillus cereus; D-values; biofilm; diarrheal; emetic; spore; survival; tofu

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