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Toxins (Basel). 2019 May 22;11(5). pii: E290. doi: 10.3390/toxins11050290.

Prevalent Mycotoxins in Animal Feed: Occurrence and Analytical Methods.

Author information

1
LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. pereiracarolina03@gmail.com.
2
LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. sara.cunha@ff.up.pt.
3
LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. josefer@ff.up.pt.

Abstract

Today, we have been witnessing a steady tendency in the increase of global demand for maize, wheat, soybeans, and their products due to the steady growth and strengthening of the livestock industry. Thus, animal feed safety has gradually become more important, with mycotoxins representing one of the most significant hazards. Mycotoxins comprise different classes of secondary metabolites of molds. With regard to animal feed, aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, and zearalenone are the more prevalent ones. In this review, several constraints posed by these contaminants at economical and commercial levels will be discussed, along with the legislation established in the European Union to restrict mycotoxins levels in animal feed. In addition, the occurrence of legislated mycotoxins in raw materials and their by-products for the feeds of interest, as well as in the feeds, will be reviewed. Finally, an overview of the different sample pretreatment and detection techniques reported for mycotoxin analysis will be presented, the main weaknesses of current methods will be highlighted.

KEYWORDS:

analytical methods; contaminants; feed; fungi; mycotoxins; occurrence

PMID:
31121952
PMCID:
PMC6563184
DOI:
10.3390/toxins11050290
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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