Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jan 16;17(2). pii: E586. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17020586.

Eating Out and Consumers' Health: Evidence on Obesity and Balanced Nutrition Intakes.

Author information

Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA.
Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.


Changes in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics have contributed to an increase in away-from-home food consumption. Although consumers are increasingly demanding higher quality food, unbalanced nutrition intakes and health issues such as obesity remain prominent predicaments. This paper investigates the relationship between the frequency of having Food Away From Home (FAFH), balanced dietary intakes, and obesity (controlling for covariates) among Korean adults aged 19 to 64. Whether there exists a linear relationship between the number of having FAFH and health outcome is investigated and the optimal number of having FAFH that leads to the best health outcome is identified in the study. The results suggest that Food Away From Home generally increases deviations of dietary intakes from the reference intakes and high-frequency FAFH consumers have an elevated chance of being obese (36.22%). However, having FAFH 1-7 times per week is associated with decreased body mass index (BMI) and a lower chance of being obese in comparison to the outcomes of having food at home. The optimal level of consuming FAFH is identified to be 5-7 times per week in terms of BMI and obesity. However, consuming no FAFH is suggested to be the best in terms of balanced nutrition intake.


balanced dietary intakes; doubly robust estimation; food away from home; inverse probability weighted regression adjustment; obesity

Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Loading ...
Support Center