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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 Jun;9(6):2092-107. doi: 10.3390/ijerph9062092. Epub 2012 Jun 1.

Prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species in the final effluents of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities in South Africa.

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Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Western Delta University, P.M.B. 10, Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.


The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were evaluated to determine their physicochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC) was 1.20 × 10(4) (cfu/100 mL), 1.08 × 10(4) (cfu/100 mL), and 2.66 × 10(4) (cfu/100 mL), for the Alice, Dimbaza, and East London WWTPs respectively. The effluents were generally compliant with recommended limits for pH, temperature, TDS, DO, nitrite and nitrate; but fell short of target standards for turbidity, COD, and phosphate. The tested isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), ofloxacin (100%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%) and nitrofurantoin (80%); whereas high resistance was observed against the penicillins (90-100%), rifampin (90%), sulphamethoxazole (90%) and the cephems (70%). MAR index ranged between 0.26 and 0.58. The study demonstrated that MAR Pseudomonas species were quite prevalent in the final effluents of WWTPs in South Africa; and this can lead to serious health risk for communities that depend on the effluent-receiving waters for sundry purposes.


Pseudomonas; antibiogram; multiple-antibiotic-resistance; wastewater effluent

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