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BMJ Open. 2017 Nov 15;7(11):e017465. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017465.

Lipid profiles and determinants of total cholesterol and hypercholesterolaemia among 25-74 year-old urban and rural citizens of the Yangon Region, Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
2
International Relations Division, Ministry of Health and Sports, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar.
3
Epidemiology Unit, Prince of Songkla University, Songkla, Thailand.
4
University of Pharmacy, Yangon, Yangon, Myanmar.
5
University of Medicine 1, Yangon, Yangon, Myanmar.
6
University of Nursing, Yangon, Yangon, Myanmar.
7
University of Dental Medicine, Mandalay, Mandalay, Myanmar.
8
Military Institute of Nursing and Paramedical Sciences, Yangon, Myanmar.
9
University of Pharmacy, Mandalay, Mandalay, Myanmar.
10
Health and Disease Control Unit, Directorate of Medical Services, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar.
11
University of Dental Medicine, Yangon, Yangon, Myanmar.
12
University of Nursing, Mandalay, Mandalay, Myanmar.
13
Department of Public Health, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar.
14
Defence Services Medical Academy, Yangon, Myanmar.
15
University of Public Health, Yangon, Myanmar.
16
University of Traditional Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar.
17
University of Medicine, Mandalay, Mandalay, Myanmar.
18
Faculty of Medicine, SEGi University, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The first is to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level), as well as the mean levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL, in the urban and rural Yangon Region, Myanmar. The second is to investigate the association between urban-rural location and total cholesterol.

DESIGN:

Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology.

SETTING:

Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar.

PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 1370 men and women aged 25-74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded.

RESULTS:

Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001).Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31 mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05 mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65 mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38 mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44 mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16 mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11 mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25 mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women.

CONCLUSION:

The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both the urban and rural areas of Yangon Region, Myanmar. Preventive measures to reduce cholesterol levels in the population are therefore needed.

KEYWORDS:

Yangon; hypercholesterolaemia; lipid profile; non-communicable diseases; total cholesterol

PMID:
29146640
PMCID:
PMC5695408
DOI:
10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017465
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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