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Int J Biometeorol. 2020 Jan;64(1):59-70. doi: 10.1007/s00484-019-01793-z. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Occurrence and synoptic background of strong and very strong frost in spring and autumn in Central Europe.

Author information

1
Department of Climatology, Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, B. Krygowskiego 10, 61-680, Poznan, Poland. atomczyk@amu.edu.pl.
2
Department of Climatology, Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, B. Krygowskiego 10, 61-680, Poznan, Poland.

Abstract

The objective of the paper was the determination of the circulation conditions of occurrence of strong and very strong frost in Central Europe. A frost day was defined as a day with the minimum temperature lower than 0 °C and maximum temperature higher than 0 °C. Moreover, a division of frost was performed in terms of value of minimum temperature, resulting in the designation of mild frost (up to - 2.0 °C), moderate frost (from - 2.1 to - 4 °C), strong frost (from - 4.1 to - 6 °C) and very strong frost (< - 6 °C). The study was based on data from the years 1966-2015 from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute, Deutscher Wetterdienst and National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR). The analysis of baric conditions employed values of pressure at sea level, height of isobaric surface of 500 hPa and air temperature at a level of 850 hPa, as well as their anomalies. The spatial analysis showed that the number of frost days in spring and autumn increased from the west to the east of Central Europe. A decrease in the number of frost days, however, is observed over the prevailing area. Average conditions favouring the occurrence of strong and very strong frost both in spring and autumn were related to higher than average pressure at sea level over the prevailing area of the Euro-Atlantic sector. Such baric conditions caused advections of cool air masses from the northern sector.

KEYWORDS:

Central Europe; Circulation conditions; Climate change; Spring and autumn frost

PMID:
31515610
DOI:
10.1007/s00484-019-01793-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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