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Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Nov 16;8(11). pii: E563. doi: 10.3390/antiox8110563.

The Influence of In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Capacities of Carob Liqueurs Obtained with Different Elaboration Techniques.

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Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (MeditBio), Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal.
Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Area of Crop Protection, Andalusian Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IFAPA), Centro 'Alameda del Obispo', Apartado 3092, 14080 Cordoba, Spain.
Graduate School of Engineering and Technology, Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR), Av. de la Paz, 137, Logroño, 26006 La Rioja, Spain.


Carob liqueur is a traditional Mediterranean alcoholic beverage obtained via a wide range of production techniques contributing to the different organoleptic attributes of the final product. The aim of this research was to evaluate the stability of the chemical composition and biological capacities (antioxidant and enzyme inhibition) under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion of liqueurs prepared by flavouring the fig spirit with carob pulp by maceration, distillation, percolation, or aqueous and hydro-alcoholic infusions. For this purpose, the phenolic and furanic compositions, the total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, antioxidant capacity (AC), and enzyme inhibitory potential against acethylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes were evaluated. The content of gallic acid decreased after gastrointestinal digestion, while TPC, TFC, and AC significantly increased after each digestion phase. Overall, no significantly different enzyme inhibitions (p < 0.05) were observed among digested liqueurs, with moderate inhibition against acethylcholinesterase and tyrosinase (enzymes related with neurodegenerative diseases), and potent and low inhibitory capacities for α-glucosidase and α-amylase, respectively (ideal conditions employed in antidiabetic therapy). The study indicates that hydro-alcoholic infusion and maceration were the most appropriate methods to obtain liqueurs with higher values of the aforementioned parameters and safe levels of toxic furanics.


Ceratonia siliqua L.; antioxidant capacity; enzyme inhibition; gallic acid; gastrointestinal digestion; total flavonoid content; total phenolic content

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