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Nutrients. 2019 Nov 28;11(12). pii: E2894. doi: 10.3390/nu11122894.

Anti-Atherosclerotic Properties of Wild Rice in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Mice: The Gut Microbiome, Cytokines, and Metabolomics Study.

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Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada.
Canadian Center for Agri-food Research in Health and Medicine, St. Boniface Hospital Research Center, Winnipeg, MB R2H 2A6, Canada.
Department of Pathology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada.
Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, 25121 Brescia, Italy.
Department of Medical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada.



We previously reported the anti-atherogenic properties of wild rice in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDL-r-KO) mice. The present study aimed to discover the mechanism of action for such effects.


Fecal and plasma samples from the wild rice treated and control mice were used. Fecal bacterial population was estimated while using 16S rDNA technology. The plasma samples were used to estimate the levels of 35 inflammatory markers and metabolomics, while using Meso Scale multiplex assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques.


Many bacteria, particularly Anaeroplasma sp., Acetatifactor sp., and Prophyromonadaceae sp., were found in higher quantities in the feces of wild rice fed mice as compared to the controls. Cytokine profiles were significantly different between the plasma of treated and control mice. Among them, an increase in the level of IL-10 and erythropoietin (EPO) could explain the anti-atherogenic properties of wild rice. Among many metabolites tested in plasma of these animals, surprisingly, we found an approximately 60% increase in the levels of glucose in the wild rice fed mice as compared to that in the control mice.


Additional studies warrant further investigation of the interplay among gut microbiome, inflammatory status, and macronutrient metabolism.


16S rDNA; LDL-r-KO mice; atherosclerosis; carbohydrates; cytokines; feces; functional food; metabolomics; microbiome; plasma; proteins; wild rice

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