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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Apr;22(8):5711-41. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3974-5. Epub 2014 Dec 30.

Bisphenol A, nonylphenols, benzophenones, and benzotriazoles in soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, and food: a review.

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DICA - Sezione Ambientale, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133, Milan, Italy.


Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are not commonly monitored in the environment, but they can enter the environment from a variety of sources. The most worrying consequence of their wide use and environmental diffusion is the increase in the possible exposure pathways for humans. Moreover, knowledge of their behavior in the environment, toxicity, and biological effects is limited or not available for most CECs. The aim of this work is to edit the state of the art on few selected CECs having the potential to enter the soil and aquatic systems and cause adverse effects in humans, wildlife, and the environment: bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), benzophenones (BPs), and benzotriazole (BT). Some reviews are already available on BPA and NP, reporting about their behavior in surface water and sediments, but scarce and scattered information is available about their presence in soil and groundwater. Only a few studies are available about BPs and BT in the environment, in particular in soil and groundwater. This work summarizes the information available in the literature about the incidence and behavior of these compounds in the different environmental matrices and food. In particular, the review focuses on the physical-chemical properties, the environmental fate, the major degradation byproducts, and the environmental evidence of the selected CECs.

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