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Nutrients. 2019 Nov 19;11(11). pii: E2833. doi: 10.3390/nu11112833.

The Fluid Aspect of the Mediterranean Diet in the Prevention and Management of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes: The Role of Polyphenol Content in Moderate Consumption of Wine and Olive Oil.

Author information

1
Internal Medicine, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, 28007 Madrid, Spain.
2
Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, Av. Menéndez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba, Spain.
3
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28007 Madrid, Spain.
4
Instituto de investigación sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, 28007 Madrid, Spain.
5
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28007 Madrid, Spain.
6
First Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Diabetes Center, Medical School, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki 54621, Greece.

Abstract

A growing interest has emerged in the beneficial effects of plant-based diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The Mediterranean diet, one of the most widely evaluated dietary patterns in scientific literature, includes in its nutrients two fluid foods: olive oil, as the main source of fats, and a low-to-moderate consumption of wine, mainly red, particularly during meals. Current mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include a reduction in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, improvement in lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, as well as antithrombotic properties. Most of these effects are attributable to bioactive ingredients including polyphenols, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Polyphenols are a heterogeneous group of phytochemicals containing phenol rings. The principal classes of red wine polyphenols include flavonols (quercetin and myricetin), flavanols (catechin and epicatechin), anthocyanin and stilbenes (resveratrol). Olive oil has at least 30 phenolic compounds. Among them, the main are simple phenols (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), secoroids and lignans. The present narrative review focuses on phenols, part of red wine and virgin olive oil, discussing the evidence of their effects on lipids, blood pressure, atheromatous plaque and glucose metabolism.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular disease; diabetes; mediterranean diet; olive oil; polyphenols; wine

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