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ISA Trans. 2015 May;56:165-72. doi: 10.1016/j.isatra.2014.11.001. Epub 2014 Nov 24.

Event triggered state estimation techniques for power systems with integrated variable energy resources.

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Masdar Institute of Science & Technology, P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
Masdar Institute of Science & Technology, P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi, UAE; MIT Mechanical Engineering Department, Cambridge, MA, USA.


For many decades, state estimation (SE) has been a critical technology for energy management systems utilized by power system operators. Over time, it has become a mature technology that provides an accurate representation of system state under fairly stable and well understood system operation. The integration of variable energy resources (VERs) such as wind and solar generation, however, introduces new fast frequency dynamics and uncertainties into the system. Furthermore, such renewable energy is often integrated into the distribution system thus requiring real-time monitoring all the way to the periphery of the power grid topology and not just the (central) transmission system. The conventional solution is two fold: solve the SE problem (1) at a faster rate in accordance with the newly added VER dynamics and (2) for the entire power grid topology including the transmission and distribution systems. Such an approach results in exponentially growing problem sets which need to be solver at faster rates. This work seeks to address these two simultaneous requirements and builds upon two recent SE methods which incorporate event-triggering such that the state estimator is only called in the case of considerable novelty in the evolution of the system state. The first method incorporates only event-triggering while the second adds the concept of tracking. Both SE methods are demonstrated on the standard IEEE 14-bus system and the results are observed for a specific bus for two difference scenarios: (1) a spike in the wind power injection and (2) ramp events with higher variability. Relative to traditional state estimation, the numerical case studies showed that the proposed methods can result in computational time reductions of 90%. These results were supported by a theoretical discussion of the computational complexity of three SE techniques. The work concludes that the proposed SE techniques demonstrate practical improvements to the computational complexity of classical state estimation. In such a way, state estimation can continue to support the necessary control actions to mitigate the imbalances resulting from the uncertainties in renewables.


Computational complexity; Event triggered; Renewable energy resources; Smart grid; State estimation; Tracking; Variable energy resources

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