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Materials (Basel). 2018 Apr 18;11(4). pii: E625. doi: 10.3390/ma11040625.

Sustainable Blended Cements-Influences of Packing Density on Cement Paste Chemical Efficiency.

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Department of Civil Engineering, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel.
Department of Structural Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 653, Israel.


This paper addresses the development of blended cements with reduced clinker amount by partial replacement of the clinker with more environmentally-friendly material (e.g., limestone powders). This development can lead to more sustainable cements with reduced greenhouse gas emission and energy consumption during their production. The reduced clicker content was based on improved particle packing density and surface area of the cement powder by using three different limestone particle diameters: smaller (7 µm, 3 µm) or larger (70 µm, 53 µm) than the clinker particles, or having a similar size (23 µm). The effects of the different limestone particle sizes on the chemical reactivity of the blended cement were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), loss on ignition (LOI), isothermal calorimetry, and the water demand for reaching normal consistency. It was found that by blending the original cement with limestone, the hydration process and the reactivity of the limestone itself were increased by the increased surface area of the limestone particles. However, the carbonation reaction was decreased with the increased packing density of the blended cement with limestone, having various sizes.


blended cement; carbonation; hydration; limestone; packing density; surface area; sustainability

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