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Materials (Basel). 2017 Sep 5;10(9). pii: E1033. doi: 10.3390/ma10091033.

Electron Beam Welding of IN792 DS: Effects of Pass Speed and PWHT on Microstructure and Hardness.

Author information

1
Institute of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Technologies for Energy (ICMATE), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), 20125 Milan, Italy. giuliano.angella@cnr.it.
2
ENEA, Department for Sustainability-Research Centre of Casaccia, Santa Maria di Galeria, 00123 Rome, Italy. giuseppe.barbieri@enea.it.
3
Institute of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Technologies for Energy (ICMATE), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), 20125 Milan, Italy. riccardo.donnini@cnr.it.
4
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy. roberto.montanari@uniroma2.it.
5
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy. richetta@uniroma2.it.
6
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy. alessandra.varone@uniroma2.it.

Abstract

Electron Beam (EB) welding has been used to realize seams on 2 mm-thick plates of directionally solidified (DS) IN792 superalloy. The first part of this work evidenced the importance of pre-heating the workpiece to avoid the formation of long cracks in the seam. The comparison of different pre-heating temperatures (PHT) and pass speeds (v) allowed the identification of optimal process parameters, namely PHT = 300 °C and v = 2.5 m/min. The microstructural features of the melted zone (MZ); the heat affected zone (HAZ), and base material (BM) were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-hardness tests. In the as-welded condition; the structure of directionally oriented grains was completely lost in MZ. The γ' phase in MZ consisted of small (20-40 nm) round shaped particles and its total amount depended on both PHT and welding pass speed, whereas in HAZ, it was the same BM. Even if the amount of γ' phase in MZ was lower than that of the as-received material, the nanometric size of the particles induced an increase in hardness. EDS examinations did not show relevant composition changes in the γ' and γ phases. Post-welding heat treatments (PWHT) at 700 and 750 °C for two hours were performed on the best samples. After PWHTs, the amount of the ordered phase increased, and the effect was more pronounced at 750 °C, while the size of γ' particles in MZ remained almost the same. The hardness profiles measured across the joints showed an upward shift, but peak-valley height was a little lower, indicating more homogeneous features in the different zones.

KEYWORDS:

IN792 DS; Ni base superalloy; electron beam welding; microstructure; post-welding heat treatments

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