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Nutrients. 2018 Jan 10;10(1). pii: E61. doi: 10.3390/nu10010061.

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Nutrition Are Associated with Bone Status in University Students.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursery, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bo Sarriena s/n, Leioa, 48940 Bizkaia, Spain. gotzone.hervas@ehu.eus.
2
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursery, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bo Sarriena s/n, Leioa, 48940 Bizkaia, Spain. fatima.ruiz@ehu.eus.
3
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursery, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bo Sarriena s/n, Leioa, 48940 Bizkaia, Spain. jon.irazusta@ehu.eus.
4
Department of Nursing I, Faculty of Medicine and Nursery, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bo Sarriena s/n, Leioa, 48940 Bizkaia, Spain.
5
Department of Nursing I, Faculty of Medicine and Nursery, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bo Sarriena s/n, Leioa, 48940 Bizkaia, Spain. ainhoa.fernandez@ehu.eus.
6
Department of Nursing I, Faculty of Medicine and Nursery, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bo Sarriena s/n, Leioa, 48940 Bizkaia, Spain. idoia.zarrazquin@ehu.eus.

Abstract

Understanding the modifiable factors that improve and maximize peak bone mass at an early age is necessary to design more effective intervention programs to prevent osteoporosis. To identify these modifiable factors, we analyzed the relationship of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, body composition, and dietary intake with bone stiffness index (SI), measured by quantitative ultrasonometry in young university students (18-21 years). Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was the strongest predictor of SI (β = 0.184; p = 0.035). SI was most closely related with very vigorous PA in males (β = 0.288; p = 0.040) and with the number of steps/day in females (β = 0.319; p = 0.002). An association between thigh muscle and SI was consistent in both sexes (β = 0.328; p < 0.001). Additionally, extension maximal force was a bone SI predictor factor in females (β = 0.263; p = 0.016) independent of thigh muscle perimeter. Calcium intake was the only nutrition parameter that had a positive relationship with SI (R = 0.217; p = 0.022). However, it was not included as a predictor for SI in our regression models. This study identifies predictors of bone status in each sex and indicates that muscle and bone interrelate with PA and fitness in young adults.

KEYWORDS:

body composition; bone health; muscle strength; nutrition; physical activity; university students

PMID:
29320446
PMCID:
PMC5793289
DOI:
10.3390/nu10010061
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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