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Indian J Clin Biochem. 2018 Jul;33(3):297-303. doi: 10.1007/s12291-017-0675-0. Epub 2017 Jul 22.

Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis and Vitamin D in Hemodialysis Patients: Relation to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness.

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1Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
2Department of Radiology, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.
3Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.


Cardiovascular disease, as the leading cause of patient death with chronic kidney disease, could be predicted by carotid atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible relationship between serum soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and Vitamin D levels with mean right/left carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), in the hemodialysis (HD) patients. In this cross-sectional study, serums were obtained from 50 stable chronic HD patients and 39 healthy controls. The serum levels of sTWEAK, Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) in both groups, and cIMT were determined in HD patients by standard methods. Serum levels of sTWEAK were higher [808.8 (521.6-5032.4) pg/ml vs. 664.4 (487.4-2955.8) pg/ml (p = 0.006)] and Vitamin D levels were lower [13.4 (2.5-153) ng/ml vs. 27.8 (18.4-59.0) ng/ml (p = 0.001)] in the hemodialysis patients than in the healthy control. No important correlation was found between sTWEAK Vitamin D levels (r = 0.010/p = 0.946), and mean right(r = -0.194/p = 0.178) and left (r = 0.061/p = 0.673) cIMT in the HD patients. Our study shows that sTWEAK levels are elevated in HD patients. This elevation has no association with the cIMT.


Carotid intima-media thickness; Hemodialysis; Vitamin D; sTWEAK

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare they have no competing interests or conflicts of interest associated with this manuscript.The ethics committee at the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences reviewed and approved the present study, in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki.Informed consent was obtained from all participants.

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