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Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2019 Aug;94(4):1477-1501. doi: 10.1111/brv.12511. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Global effects of non-native tree species on multiple ecosystem services.

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Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alcalá, E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Spain.
Research Network in Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources (InBIO-CIBIO), Universidade do Porto, PT4485-661, Vairão, Portugal.
Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, PT4169-007, Porto, Portugal.
College of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, 3045-601, Coimbra, Portugal.
Centre for Applied Ecology "Prof. Baeta Neves" (InBIO-CEABN), School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, PT1349-017, Lisbon, Portugal.
Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, University of Vienna, 1030, Vienna, Austria.
School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Melbourne, Richmond, Victoria, 3121, Australia.
Department of Integrative Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), E-41092, Sevilla, Spain.
Landcare Research, Lincoln, 7640, New Zealand.
Grupo de Ecología de Invasiones, INIBIOMA, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, CONICET, Avenida de los Pioneros 2350, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
Department of Biology, University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, HI, 96720, U.S.A.
University of Göttingen, 37073, Göttingen, Germany.
IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, 38010, Trento, Italy.
MOUNTFOR Project Centre, European Forest Institute, 38010, Trento, Italy.
Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-456, Coimbra, Portugal.
The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia.
CSIRO Land and Water, Ecosciences Precinct, Dutton Park, Queensland, 4102, Australia.
CREA Research Centre for Foresty and Wood, Viale Santa Margherita, 80 52100, Arezzo, Italy.
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95060, U.S.A.
Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, 7602, South Africa.
USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Hilo, HI, U.S.A.
French Associates Institute for Agriculture and Biotechnology of Drylands. Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba, 84990, Israel.
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
CSIRO Land & Water, Wembley, Western Australia, 6913, Australia.
School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009, Australia.
Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, 613 00, Brno-sever, Czech Republic.
Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia.
Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB - Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal.
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), FI-00791, Helsinki, Finland.
Setor de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG, 37200-000, Brazil.
Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Cc. del Mar y Ambientales, Instituto Universitario de Investigación Marina (INMAR), Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, Universidad de Cádiz, E-11510, Puerto Real, Spain.


Non-native tree (NNT) species have been transported worldwide to create or enhance services that are fundamental for human well-being, such as timber provision, erosion control or ornamental value; yet NNTs can also produce undesired effects, such as fire proneness or pollen allergenicity. Despite the variety of effects that NNTs have on multiple ecosystem services, a global quantitative assessment of their costs and benefits is still lacking. Such information is critical for decision-making, management and sustainable exploitation of NNTs. We present here a global assessment of NNT effects on the three main categories of ecosystem services, including regulating (RES), provisioning (PES) and cultural services (CES), and on an ecosystem disservice (EDS), i.e. pollen allergenicity. By searching the scientific literature, country forestry reports, and social media, we compiled a global data set of 1683 case studies from over 125 NNT species, covering 44 countries, all continents but Antarctica, and seven biomes. Using different meta-analysis techniques, we found that, while NNTs increase most RES (e.g. climate regulation, soil erosion control, fertility and formation), they decrease PES (e.g. NNTs contribute less than native trees to global timber provision). Also, they have different effects on CES (e.g. increase aesthetic values but decrease scientific interest), and no effect on the EDS considered. NNT effects on each ecosystem (dis)service showed a strong context dependency, varying across NNT types, biomes and socio-economic conditions. For instance, some RES are increased more by NNTs able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, and when the ecosystem is located in low-latitude biomes; some CES are increased more by NNTs in less-wealthy countries or in countries with higher gross domestic products. The effects of NNTs on several ecosystem (dis)services exhibited some synergies (e.g. among soil fertility, soil formation and climate regulation or between aesthetic values and pollen allergenicity), but also trade-offs (e.g. between fire regulation and soil erosion control). Our analyses provide a quantitative understanding of the complex synergies, trade-offs and context dependencies involved for the effects of NNTs that is essential for attaining a sustained provision of ecosystem services.


biological invasions; cultural ecosystem services; exotic trees; forestry; global assessment; meta-analysis; provisioning ecosystem services; regulating ecosystem services

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